HEALTH INSTITUTIONS OR SANATORIA
SANATORIA in the U.S.S.R. arc not merely for tubercular patients,
they also treat various other diseases in their very first stages, as
well as cases of ordinary debility or overstrain, and cases which
show a tendency towards the development of tuberculosis or other
disease suitable for sanatorium treatment. We describe below only a few
of the numerous sanatoria we visited all over the U.S.S.R.
The Livadia Peasants' Sanatorium
The Livadia was formerly the Tsarist Crimean estate. The estate
itself covers nearly 950 acres. The park alone extends over about 352
acres, and contains numerous fine trees, the whole of the world having
been scoured for the finest specimens when the park was planted. There
are gardens extending over nearly nineteen acres, magnificent vineries, &c.
The cut roadways cover over twenty-six miles. The estate contains
400 structures, 110 of which are dwelling-houses.
The most imposing structure is, of course, the Big Palace, the
construction of which alone cost two and a half million roubles (over
£250,000), a three-storied building containing 125 beautiful rooms. This
was the seaside residence of the Tsar and Tsaritsa and their children. The
riches formerly contained in this palace are almost fabulous. Then there
is the Small Palace, in which Alexander III had lived and died, and
which had not been used since his death.
In addition, there are the very fine residences of the Tsarist retinue,
the court ladies and gentlemen. One such house contains sixty-two rooms.
And finally there are the small dwellings for the numerous servants who
ministered to the comforts of all these parasites.
There was also in Livadia a splendid motor garage, housing 100 ears
and a large coachhouse for all the motors and carriages of the royal
family and their retinue ; the latter, it is said, numbered about 1,000
Apart from the Tsar and his court and their servants, 3,000 soldiers
and jxilice were stationed in and around Livadia, for the protection of
the Tsar against the people. But even that was not sufficient. A special
cavalry regiment was stationed as a reserve in Simferopol, and along the
whole coast of the Crimea there was a network of secret police and spies,
with headquarters at Yalta.
Now, however, this is all changed. The Tsar, and his family,and the nobility
have vanished, and the magnificent rooms and grounds, for so long their
playground, now house honest sons and daughters of the soil—the
Russian peasants—who come here to recover from disease. This year
the Big Palace alone is housing 350 peasants ; next year it is hoped to
have accommodation for 600.
We visited Livadia on May 28. Although the sanatorium had not
yet been formally opened, already a large number of peasants were there.
It was a glorious day, and the gardens around the palace were in full