attract a larger number of women students. The difficulties in the way,
however, are enormous, for, high as the proportion of illiterates was amongst
the people as a whole in Tsarist Russia, it was, and still is highest of all
amongst the women workers and peasants.
Students are sent by the trade unions, party and peasants organisations and the available places are divided between the various trade union
and other organisations of the various districts.
The Bukharin Rabfac
The largest Workers' Faculty in Moscow is the Bukharin Rabfac
(Workers' Faculty), which contains 1,500 day students and 630 evening
students. About 55 per cent, of the students are workers, the rest belonging
to the peasantry. A very great effort has been made recently to increase
the number of peasant students and considering the greater illiteracy among
the peasants, not without success.
As in all the Workers Faculties, so here students on admission must be
eighteen years of age or over, and if eighteen they must have been at work
in industry or agriculture at least three years. If they are older they must
have worked a longer period. They are also required to have the necessary
elementary knowledge on admission.
The day courses begin at 9 a.m. and end at 2.30 p.m. The evening
courses are from 7.30 p.m. to 11 p.m.
There are 120 teachers and lecturers at this Rabfac, and in each class
there are about thirty students. The day courses are spread over three
years, the evening courses over four years. The first year is spent in
general education, at the end of which the students, on the advice of the
teachers, choose their speciality. The courses include the physical sciences,
biology, social economics, and pedagogy. In the social economic section
only Marxian economics is taught, for, as they explained to us, " they
have no time to teach everything, so they teach what is best and most
useful from the working class point of view." This faculty, like the others,
aims at giving what roughly corresponds to our secondary school education,
that is to say, to give workers a sufficient grounding for entering the
university. So far as the Bukharin Faculty is concerned, it would certainly
seem to attain this end. The samples of students' work we saw on the
walls and among the students' notes in the geography, art, and other
sections were certainly very good. The chemical and physical laboratories
were no worse, in some respects even better equipped than the corresponding
laboratories in most of our secondary schools at home, and the biological
laboratory would not have compared unfavourably with even some of
our university biological laboratories (at any rate for junior students),
especially as regards the excellent specimens collected and prepared by
the students themselves. In addition, the college contains libraries of
old and new books, a number of good reading rooms, a special " Lenin "
room, in which his works are specially studied, a good dining room, where
students can get a good two-course lunch or supper for twenty-five kopecks
In view of the fact that it is sometimes stated that the classic Russian
authors are not permitted to circulate, &c, it may not be out of place to
say here that we noted particularly that around the walls in some of the