Schools and Pupils in the U.S.S.R.
Russian Socialist Federal Soviet
White Russian S.S.R.
Total over the whole of the U.S.S.R.
In the Ukraine a number of small badly constructed schools were
closed and the pupils found places in the larger schools.
The number of elementary schools in the U.S.S.R. and the children
attending them has increased from 64,078 with 4,657,890 pupils in 1923
to 67,473 schools with 4,950,147 children. These figures do not include the
Transcaucasian Republics, but they include all other parts of the U.S.S.R.
On the other hand, both the number of children in pre-school institutions
(kindergartens, &c.) and those of the children's homes have decreased
during this period, but since the end of 1924 their number has again
Factory nurseries are dealt with in the chapter on " Women in
For defective children there are special homes, as there are also for
orphan children. We visited a number of the latter, in most cases when
our visit was not expected, and we almost invariably found that the
premises were clean, the children though poorly dressed, looked well fed,
and the relation between children and teachers seemed very happy and
natural. Some of the samples of children's work, including handicraft,
written work, drawings, &c, was remarkably good. At these homes, as
at all the day schools and even kindergartens and creches, the education
and whole atmosphere is frankly working class and socialist. Every
school and every children's home has its Lenin corner, where the children
are taught to take an interest in " Uncle Lenin's " works and writings.
" To love study, and to be kind and helpful to one's fellow workers,"
they are told in mottos on the wall, " is to obey Uncle Lenin's commands,
and is the proper way of showing love for him."
On January 1, 1924, there were 4,605 children's homes housing 317,854
children in the U.S.S.R., excluding the Transcaucasian Republic.
Institutions for Homeless and Criminal Children
Receiving Stations.—Are institutions dealing with homeless children,
where immediate help is rendered to children needing it. Here they
remain until a permanent home is found for them. These stations are
separate for boys and girls.
Observation and Distributing Centres.—Deal with defective and