efforts of this body a kitchen was set up and a hot lunch provided for the
children. This costs ten kopecks, but those children whose parents cannot
afford this are granted the lunch free of charge. The majority of the
children use the school dining room for this purpose. (10 kopecks = 2|d.)
The children are all medically examined twice a year. There is a
well-equipped hospital on the school premises, containing also a dental
section, where children receive treatment immediately they require it.
We visited the schoolrooms and looked over the exercise books of the
various scholars. The results, in most cases, seemed exceedingly good,
as did the samples of their work on the walls. When we visited the school
the children were busy preparing for their annual exhibition, and we
saw some wonderfully well-constructed models of machinery in metal
factories. We also saw descriptions of how various metals are obtained,
illustrated with drawings and specimens of the products in various stages
of manufacture. There were plans and models of factories, and so on.
The children themselves took a great pride in showing their preparations,
explaining how they had obtained specimens during their visit to metal
factories, and in return asked us many intelligent questions about the
life and schools of British children, what sort of Young Pioneer movement
there was in England, how many Young Communists there were, whether
there were young labour organisations, and so on.
The school is provided with workshops and a museum, a large number
of the specimens in which were collected by the children themselves.
The number of children per class is from thirty to thirty-five. The
whole of the children are also divided into thirty groups for purposes
of visits to works, and each group visits ten factories per year. We were
particularly struck both at this school, as at other schools we visited, with
the friendly and natural relations between the principal, the teachers,
and the children.
At this school we also saw what we had hitherto only noted at some
of the children's homes, namely, out-of-door classes. The school has a
garden attached and sufficient tables and benches are permanently fixed
for accommodating the whole school in fine weather.
About 70 per cent, of the children at this school, we were informed
by the principal, belonged to the Young Pioneers.
We were also informed that 92 per cent, of the children in Kharkov
were at school this year, and it was hoped to provide accommodation
for the whole 100 per cent, next year.
On being told that education was compulsory, we asked what penalties
were inflicted on parents who refused to send their children to school,
to which the reply was they had never met with such a case. The
parents were only too anxious for their children to attend school. In
general, it will not be very long before at least elementary education is
universal in the Ukraine.
The following table shows the increase in the total number of children's
educational establishments in the various Republics of the Soviet Union
between January, 1923, and January, 1924. Since then there has been
a very considerable increase in both educational establishments and
pupils, but we were unable to obtain the necessary statistical data before