In all cases we found that the first consideration was the health and
comfort of the worker.
The rooms were well lighted. In one instance, where looms stood in
the centre of a room (not a shed) electric lights were hung low, so that each
weaver could see very well to draw her ends. The work, on the whole,
seemed very good. In several mills a cloakroom for the workers' outdoor
clothes was provided, but in one or twro cases their clothes were hanging
in the workroom.
The apprentice system in the cotton trade is very well organised.
Although these boys and girls do not finally enter the mill until they are
eighteen years, we were informed that they made very good workpeople.
From figures given to us, we saw that output was steadily increasing.
Some of the mills were working on a two-shift system, and in one case
they were preparing to introduce a three-shift system.
Although this is being done, there is still a shortage of cotton goods,
and money is being laid aside to start new mills. We were informed that,
these constructions would be started shortly, that British machinery was
preferred, and that if at all possible the orders for new equipment and
machinery would be placed in Britain. We noticed that most of the
machines used at present were of British make.
In many cases we were told of long hours and low wages before the
Revolution, and in one case we were told of workpeople who lived inside
the mill; now they all live outside the mill. The mills often have dispensaries, where the workers not only get what they need, but a qualified nurse
is in attendance to give advice.
In all the textile factories we visited women were taking an active part
on all the Workshop Committees ; for instance, at one mill we found that
on the Welfare Committee there were three men and twelve women, and the
chairman was a woman ; on the Physical Culture Committee there were
eight women and one man ; on the Education Committee there were six
women and one man ; 126 trade union delegates were women, and twelve
The Trekhgornaya Factory
(in the Krassno-Presensk district of Moscow)
Our visit to the Trekhgornaya factory took place a day earlier than they
had actually expected us, and it also happened at a moment least favourable
to the authorities, as we learnt afterwards from our conversation with
some of the workers.
This mill has 7,500 workpeople, and is, we were told, of historical
importance : after the first revolution of 1905, when the people were fighting
for better conditions of employment and advances in wages, the leaders of
the movement were shot down, and fourteen were killed. In one of the
meeting rooms adjoining the mill there is a tablet to their memory, and it
was observed that their ages ranged from eighteen to twenty-eight years.
We went through the raw material rooms, and the card room, ring
spinning room, winding rooms, weaving rooms, bleaching rooms, printing
rooms and flannelette-raising rooms. Every process is gone through at
this mill, right from the raw materials to the finished article ready for the