eight hours. In the ease of small mills which have no factory school,
arrangements are made for the apprentices to attend the nearest school.
All apprentices have two months' holiday per year with full pay, and
receive full pay all the time whilst training. After the age of eighteen
years they are encouraged to continue their studies through the works
club, thus affording everyone an opportunity of learning the trade
throughout, both practically and technically.
In our country hundreds of workers are following blind alley occupations,
and never have any opportunity of learning more than one or two operations,
consequently they are doomed to be classed as general labourers, or leave
the trade after serving four or five years. Needless to say all the workers
are highly appreciative of the system, and are doing their utmost to
increase production, because to them increased production means additional
benefits to the producers, more modern machinery for the trade, and
more employment for the workless. Some of the mills have a special
dispensary attached where the workers get free medical treatment.
In one mill we found a barber's shop attached, whilst another had a
co-operative society as a special feature, in addition to the workers' club
The Printing Trade
The printing trade in Russia is hardly comparable with that in
England owing to the lack of effective and up-to-date machinery, and of
skilled workers. All the workers are catered for by one union, and women
are encouraged to enter all branches of the trade with the exception of
stereotyping, which is regarded as dangerous and unhealthy.
We were informed that in a recent competition for compositors two
women had secured fourth and sixth places respectively, also that on
general work the women w-ere equally as quick and efficient as the men,
but that on artistic work the men were easily the best.
There is no difference in the rate of pay as between men and women, so
that there is no fear of the women's labour being used for cutting down the
standard rates. We found quite a number of women on linotype machines,
whilst men were engaged feeding small machines, folding, and sewing ; quite
a number of them working on the benches alongside with the women. In
one works in Moscow 20 per cent, of the compositors were women. Three of
the skilled binders were women, and the manager was a woman. Many new
machines were being installed in this works, but we noticed that after
installation some were stopped on account of the lack of skilled workers.
In a newspaper office, which was a newly constructed place, special
floors had been laid consisting of a wood and rubber mixture, and all the
walls were painted pale grey to ease the eyestrain. Overalls were provided
and washed by the firm. Hot and cold water shower baths were also
provided, and every room was a model of hygiene, providing plenty of
light, air, and space. Pure drinking water was provided in every department.
In conversation with the workers we were told that English machines
were preferred to American, but that on account of the English firms
refusing to give credit, whilst Germany and America were offering long
credit, orders for machinery were going to those countries. We met several
printing engineers from England working in Moscow, who were greatly