24 THE MEANING OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.
carpenters, artists, tailors, scientists, physicians, generals, soldiers-
are but the servants or parasites of the agriculturist. So that
agriculture, besides being the most moral, healthy, joyful and
necessary occupation, is also the highest of human activities, and
alone gives men true independence.
The enormous majority of Russians are still living this most
natural, moral and independent agricultural life ; and this is the
second, most important, circumstance, which makes it possible and
natural for the Russian people, now that it is faced by the
necessity of changing its relations towards power, to change them
in no other way than by freeing themselves from the evil of all
power, and simply ceasing to submit to any kind of Government.
These are the first two conditions, both of which are external.
The third condition, an inner one, is the religious feeling which
according to the evidence of history, the observation of foreigners
who have studied the Russian people, and especially the inner
consciousness of every Russian, was and is a special characteristic
of the Russian people.
In Western Europe—either because the Gospels printed in
Latin were inaccessible to the people till the time of the
Reformation, and have remained till now inaccessible to the whole
Roman Catholic world, or because of the refined methods which
the Papacy employs to hide true Christianity from the people, or in
consequence of the specially practical character of those nations—
there is no doubt that the essence of Christianity, not only among
Roman Catholics but also among Lutherans, and even more in the
Anglican Church, has long ceased to be a faith directing people's
lives, and has been replaced by external forms, or among the
higher classes by indifference and the rejection of all religion.
For the vast majority of Russians, however—perhaps because the
Gospels became accessible to them as early as the tenth century,
or because of the coarse stupidity of the Russo-Grcck Church,
which tried clumsily and therefore vainly to hide the true meaning
of the Christian teaching, or because of some peculiar trait in the
Russian character, and because of their agricultural life—Christian