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What has become of the Russian Revolution
Image 61
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Yvon, M., 1899-1986. What has become of the Russian Revolution - Image 61. 1937. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 21, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/4766/show/4758.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Yvon, M., 1899-1986. (1937). What has become of the Russian Revolution - Image 61. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/4766/show/4758

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Yvon, M., 1899-1986, What has become of the Russian Revolution - Image 61, 1937, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 21, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/4766/show/4758.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title What has become of the Russian Revolution
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Yvon, M., 1899-1986
Contributor (Local)
  • Integer
Publisher International Review
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • New York, New York
Date 1937
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Communism
  • Economics
Subject.Topical (Local)
  • Social conditions
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Soviet Union
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 63 pages; 22 cm
Original Item Location HN523.Y8613 1937
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304536~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction In Copyright: This item is protected by copyright. Copyright to this resource is held by the creator or current rights holder, and the resource is provided here for educational purposes. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without permission of the copyright owner. Users assume full responsibility for any infringement of copyright or related rights.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 61
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2209396_060.jpg
Transcript He has no land of his own. "Land to the peasants" has been changed to "Land to the State." The agricultural laborer does piece-work, like his brother in the factory. The relations that the factory worker finds most hateful in his place of work exist also in the fields. There are "norms" to fulfill at any cost, fines for work that is badly performed, for lateness, for lack of respect to superiors, etc. The Soviet workers in the fields and in the cities are new serfs. They lead a miserable existence. Their food is doled out to them. They are not free to act, to speak, to go where they want to go. They are constantly forced to learn, to digest, to think an official religion, a single catechism, from which their minds may in no way be diverted. Labor is in the USSR, as elsewhere, the only source of all value. But as everywhere else, the workers do not receive anything near the product of their labor. They are victims of a "distribution" of the total social wealth that is more scandalously unequal than that existing in any avowed capitalist country. They are robbed of the product of their labor, and they have not the possibility of seeking to go where they might get a little more for their labor power, because they are attached to the agricultural enterprise and to the factory. The Small and Middle Employee The Soviet "employees", taken as a whole, constitute an intermediate class in Russia. In the Soviet regime, they are both pariahs and privileged, as compared to the workers. They serve as a buffer between the State, the lower bureaucratic functions of which they execute, and the workers, whom they direct. These are the "bureaucrats" who transmit the orders from above. Ensconced in their office cages, they distribute food cards, giving the citizen the right to a meager ration; they transmit and establish the norms required by the top. They are the innumerable little bosses who watch that the producer does not transgress against the top. They are detested by the workers and the agricultural laborers. To the latter, they appear to represent the part of society that does not produce, for they are many and are the tangible and ever present personification of the parasitism of the regime. It is they who are often envied by the workers, for it is them whom the workers see every day, while the big fellows, the real bosses, are much more "invisible" than the real bosses in the avowed capitalist countries. And the veritable masters do not fail to exploit the optic error of the workers in order to turn the hate of the masses from themselves to the helpless "employees". When they speak up on high about the mistakes, bad ways, and the lack of interest of the bureaucracy, it is these little "employees" who are meant. Since in no country are so many offices and sub-officials needed as in the "planned" and economically organized USSR, the numerical growth of the class of small "employees" is astounding. For 21,000,000 workers (not counting the peasants) there are at least 8,000,000 employees. Stooping over his papers, the "employee" establishes contact with the center by accomplishing the bureaucratic tasks necessary for the 59