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Georgia, a social-democratic peasant republic, impressions and observations
Image 25
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Kautsky, Karl, 1854-1938. Georgia, a social-democratic peasant republic, impressions and observations - Image 25. 1921. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. February 27, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3970/show/3878.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kautsky, Karl, 1854-1938. (1921). Georgia, a social-democratic peasant republic, impressions and observations - Image 25. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3970/show/3878

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kautsky, Karl, 1854-1938, Georgia, a social-democratic peasant republic, impressions and observations - Image 25, 1921, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed February 27, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3970/show/3878.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Georgia, a social-democratic peasant republic, impressions and observations
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Kautsky, Karl, 1854-1938
Contributor (LCNAF)
  • Stenning, H. J. (Henry James), 1889-, translator
Publisher International Bookshops
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • London, England
Date 1921
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Georgia
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 111, [1] pages; 19 cm
Original Item Location DK5ll.G3K3 1921
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304504~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction Public Domain: This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 25
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2669984_024.jpg
Transcript CHAPTER III. AGRICULTURE. Even to-day the land of Georgia is cultivated in the most primitive fashion. There, as elsewhere, feudal dependence and the prevalence of short leases impeded the development of agriculture. The implements of Georgian agriculture reminded German observers, only a short time ago, of Biblical times. In 1905, Paul Hoffmann wrote, in his book on "German Colonies in Transcaucasia," as follows :— "Only in recent times have modern ploughs been widely used in Transcaucasia, and the colonists are still partly assisted by the wooden ploughs of the Georgians." If this is the case with the German colonists, who represent a higher type of agriculture, it applies still more to the Georgian peasants themselves. The plough does not penetrate the soil very deep, and requires an uncommonly strong team, five to ten pairs of buffaloes. Merzbacher saw ploughs drawn by twenty-four animals, which needed seven men to guide them. What an expenditure of energy to secure a scanty result. Thrashing is managed' with a thrashing sledge, provided with a, flint, which appeared to Merzbacher to be a relic of the stone age. The methods of soil cultivation are as primitive as the implements used. Rotation of crops and artificial manuring are quite unknown. The tillage resembles the system which existed in Germany at the time of Charles the Great. The same crop, whether wheat or barley, is planted year in and year out in the same field, sometimes three years in succession, until the harvest 23