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World voices on the Moscow trials
Image 22
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American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky. World voices on the Moscow trials - Image 22. 1936?. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 19, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3054/show/3007.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky. (1936?). World voices on the Moscow trials - Image 22. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3054/show/3007

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky, World voices on the Moscow trials - Image 22, 1936?, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 19, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/3054/show/3007.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title World voices on the Moscow trials
Alternative Title World voices on the Moscow trials: a compilation from the labor and liberal press of the world
Creator (LCNAF)
  • American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky
Publisher Pioneer Publishers
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • New York, New York
Date 1936?
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940
  • Zinovyev, Grigory Yevseyevich, 1883-1936
  • Kamenev, Lev Borisovich, 1883-1936
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
  • Image
Original Item Extent 64 pages: 1 illustration; 20 cm
Original Item Location DK266.3.A45
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304404~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction In Copyright: This item is protected by copyright. Copyright to this resource is held by the creator or current rights holder, and the resource is provided here for educational purposes. It may not be reproduced or distributed in any format without permission of the copyright owner. Users assume full responsibility for any infringement of copyright or related rights.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 22
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2774257_021.jpg
Transcript I It was an essential part of procedure under the Empire. "The Digest of Justinian" lays down a long list of rules for its application. From Rome it passed into nearly every country in Europe, until the 18th century, when it was legally abolished in most countries. A Statute of Queen Anne declares that "no person accused of any capital offense or other crime in Scotland shall be subject or liable to any torture." Jardine, in "The Use of Torture in the Criminal Law of England," says that "in England, though it is not expressly forbidden by any Act of Parliament, there is no instance of its application subsequently to the Commonwealth. Anterior to the Commonwealth," he goes on to say, "torture was always used as a matter of course in all grave accusations, at the mere discretion of the King and the Privy Council, and uncontrolled by any law besides the prerogative of the Sovereign." Sir Thomas Smith, Secretary to Queen Elizabeth, writes, in "Commonwealth of England": "Torment or question which is used by the order of the civile law and custome of other countries, to put a malefactor to excessive paine to make him confesse of himself or of his fellowes or complices, is not used in England. It is taken for servile. For how can he serve the Commonwealth after as a free man who hath his body so haled and tormented? And if he been not found guilty, what amends can be made him? And if he must dye, what cruel tie is it so to torment him before! The nature of Englishmen is to neglect death, to abide no torment; and therefore hee will confesse rather to have done anything—yea, to have killed his own father, than to suffer torment." Yet Jardine gives a number of instances of the use of torture for this purpose during Elizabeth's reign, some of which make horrible reading; in 1577, "orders are given to the Lieutenant of the Tower to place the prisoner in the 'dungeon among the rats,' if he does not answer willingly: a cell below high-water mark and totally dark; and as the tide flowed, innumerable rats, which infest the muddy banks of the Thames, were driven through the orifices of the walls into the dungeon." Sherington's irons (the Scavenger's Daughter) was considered a mild form of torture, and among the "gentler tortures" was the tying of the victim's thumbs together and suspending him by them to a beam, while the questions were repeated to him. Jardine, writing in 1837, says "at the present day the practice of torture has wholly disappeared from the criminal procedure of every European nation." That, however, was said nearly 100 years before Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin; and before the report of the American Commission. 20