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The Chicago martyrs
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The Chicago martyrs - Image 154. 1899. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. October 26, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1711.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(1899). The Chicago martyrs - Image 154. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1711

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Chicago martyrs - Image 154, 1899, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed October 26, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1711.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title The Chicago martyrs
Alternative Title The Chicago martyrs: the famous speeches of the eight anarchists in Judge Gary's court, October 7, 8, 9, 1886, and Reasons for pardoning Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab
Contributor (LCNAF)
  • Altgeld, John Peter, 1847-1902
  • Spies, August Vincent Theodore, 1855-1887
Publisher Free Society Publishing Co.
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • San Francisco, California
Date 1899
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Haymarket Square Riot, Chicago, Ill., 1886
  • Anarchists
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • Fielden, Samuel, 1847-
  • Neebe, Oscar W., 1850-
  • Schwab, Michael, 1853-
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 159 pages; [2] leaves of plates; 1 illustration; 1 portrait; 23 cm.
Original Item Location HX846.C4C43 1899
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8319999~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 154
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_21042507_153.jpg
Transcript 146 altgeld's reasons for pardoning killed the policeman, and the evidence does not show any connection whatever between the defendants and the man who did throw it. The trial judge, in overruling the motion for a new hearing, and again, recently in a magazine article, used this language: "The conviction has not gone on the ground that they did have actually any personal participation in the particular act which caused the death of Degan, but the conviction proceeds upon the ground that they had generally, by speech and print, advised large classes of the people, not particular individuals, but large classes, to commit murder, and had left the commission, the time and place and when, to the individual will and whim or caprice, or whatever it may be, of each individual man who listened to their advice, and that in consequence of that advice, in pursuance of that advice, and influenced by that advice, somebody not known did throw the bomb that caused Degan's death. Now, if this is not a correct principle of the law, then the defendants of course are entitled to a new trial. This case is without a precedent; there is no example in the law books of a case of this sort." The judge certainly told the truth when he stated that this case was without a precedent, and that no example could be found in the law books to sustain the law as above laid down. For, in all the centuries during which government has been maintained among men, and crime has been punished, no judge in a civilized country has ever laid down such a rule before. The petitioners claim that it was laid down in this case simply because the prosecution, not having discovered the real criminal, would otherwise not have been able to convict anybody; that this course was then taken to appease the fury of the public, and that the judgment was allowed to stand for the same reason. I will not discuss this. But taking the law as above laid down, it was necessary under it to prove, and that beyond a reasonable doubt, that the person committing the violent deed had at least heard or read the advice given to the masses, for until he either heard or read it he did not receive it, and if he did not receive it, he did not commit the violent act in pursuance of that advice; and it is here that the case for the State fails; with all his apparent eagerness to force conviction in court, and his efforts in defending his course since the trial, the judge, speaking on this point in his magazine article, makes this statement: "It is probably true that Rudolph Schnaubelt threw the bomb," which statement is merely a surmise and is all that is known about it, and is certainly not sufficient to convict eight men on. In fact, until the State proves from whose hands the bomb came, it is impossible to show any connection between the man who threw it and these defendants. It is further shown that the mass of matter contained in the record and quoted at length in the judge's magazine article, showing the use of seditious and incendiary language, amounts to but little when its source is considered. The two papers in which articles appeared at intervals during years, were obscure little sheets, having scarcely any circulation, and the articles themselves were written at times of great public excitement, when an element in the community claimed to have been outraged; and the same is true of the speeches made by the defendants and others; the apparently seditious utterances were such as are always heard when men imagine that they have been wronged, or are excited or partially intoxicated; and the talk of a gigantic