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The Chicago martyrs
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The Chicago martyrs - Image 76. 1899. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. October 26, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1633.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(1899). The Chicago martyrs - Image 76. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1633

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Chicago martyrs - Image 76, 1899, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed October 26, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1633.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title The Chicago martyrs
Alternative Title The Chicago martyrs: the famous speeches of the eight anarchists in Judge Gary's court, October 7, 8, 9, 1886, and Reasons for pardoning Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab
Contributor (LCNAF)
  • Altgeld, John Peter, 1847-1902
  • Spies, August Vincent Theodore, 1855-1887
Publisher Free Society Publishing Co.
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • San Francisco, California
Date 1899
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Haymarket Square Riot, Chicago, Ill., 1886
  • Anarchists
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • Fielden, Samuel, 1847-
  • Neebe, Oscar W., 1850-
  • Schwab, Michael, 1853-
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 159 pages; [2] leaves of plates; 1 illustration; 1 portrait; 23 cm.
Original Item Location HX846.C4C43 1899
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8319999~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 76
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_21042507_075.jpg
Transcript 68 ADDRESS OF ALBEKT B. PAKSONS. poison upon me and upon my colleagues. For two months they have sat here and spat like adders the vile poison of their tongues, and if men could have been placed in a mental inquisition and tortured to death, these men would have succeeded here now, for we have been villified, misrepresented, held in loathsome contempt, without a chance to speak or contradict a word. Therefore, if I show emotion, it is because of this, and if my comrades and colleagues' with me here have spoken in such strains as these, it is because of this. Pardon us. Look at it from the right standpoint. What is this labor question? It is not a question of emotion; the labor question is not a question of sentiment; it is not a religious matter; it is not a political problem; no, sir, it is a stern economic fact, a stubborn and immovable fact. It has, it is true, its emotional phase; it has its sentimental, religious, political aspects; but the sum total of this question is the bread and butter question, the how and why we shall live and earn our daily bread. This is the labor movement. It has a scientific basis. It is iounded upon fact, and I have been to considerable pains in my researches of well known and distinguished authors on this question to collect and present to you briefly what this question is and what it springs from. I will first explain to you briefly what capital is : Capital is the stored up and accumulated surplus of past labor; capital is the product of labor. The function of capital is to appropriate or confiscate for its own use and benefit the "surplus" labor product of the wage laborer. The capitalistic system originated in the forcible seizure of natural opportunities and rights by a few, and then converting those things into special privileges which have since become vested rights, formally entrenched behind the bulwarks of statute law and government. Capital could not exist unless there also existed a majority class who were propertyless, that is, without capital, a class whose only mode of existence is the selling of their labor to capitalists. Capitalism is maintained, fostered, and perpetuated by law; in fact, capital is law—statute law—and law is capital. Now, oriefly stated, for I will not take your time but for a moment, what is labor? Labor is a commodity and wages is the price paid for it. The owner of this commodity sells it, that is, himself, to the owner of capital in order to live. Labor is the expression of energy, the po* er of the laborer's life. This energy or power he must sell to another person in order to live. It is his only means of existence. He works to live, but his work is not simply a part of his life; it is the sacrifice of it. His labor is a commodity which under the guise of free labor he is forced by necessity to hand over to another party. The whole of the wage laborer's activity is not the product of his labor—far from it. The silk he weaves, the palace he builds, the ores he digs from out the mines, are not for him. The only thing he produces for himself is his wages, and the silk, the ores, and the palace which he built, are simply transformed for him into a certain kind of means of existence, namely, a cotton shirt, a few pennies, and the mere tenancy of a lodging house. In other words, his wages represent the bare necessities of bis existence, and the unpaid-for or "surplus" portion of his labor product constitutes the vast superabundant wealth of the non-producing or capitalist class. That is the capitalist system defined in a few words. It is this system that creates these classes, and it is these classes that produce this conflict.