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The Chicago martyrs
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The Chicago martyrs - Image 14. 1899. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. October 29, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1571.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(1899). The Chicago martyrs - Image 14. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1571

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Chicago martyrs - Image 14, 1899, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed October 29, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1725/show/1571.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title The Chicago martyrs
Alternative Title The Chicago martyrs: the famous speeches of the eight anarchists in Judge Gary's court, October 7, 8, 9, 1886, and Reasons for pardoning Fielden, Neebe, and Schwab
Contributor (LCNAF)
  • Altgeld, John Peter, 1847-1902
  • Spies, August Vincent Theodore, 1855-1887
Publisher Free Society Publishing Co.
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • San Francisco, California
Date 1899
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Haymarket Square Riot, Chicago, Ill., 1886
  • Anarchists
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • Fielden, Samuel, 1847-
  • Neebe, Oscar W., 1850-
  • Schwab, Michael, 1853-
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 159 pages; [2] leaves of plates; 1 illustration; 1 portrait; 23 cm.
Original Item Location HX846.C4C43 1899
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8319999~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 14
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_21042507_013.jpg
Transcript 6 ADDRESS OF AUGUST SPIES. from being what the great revolutionists of the last century intended it to be. I said that those men, if they lived today, would clean the Augean stables with iron brooms, and that they, too, would undoubtedly be characterized as " wild Socialists." It is not unlikely that I said Washington would have been hanged for treason if the revolution had failed. * Grinnell made this " sacrilegious re- remark" his main arrow against me. Why? Because he intended to inveigh the know-nothing spirit against us. But who will deny the correctness of the statement? That I should have compared myself with Washington, is a base lie. But if I had, would that be murder? I may have told that individual who appeared here as a witness that the workingmen should procure arms, as force would in all probability be the ultima ratio; and that in Chicago there were so and so many armed, but I certainly did not say that we proposed to "inaugurate the social revolution." And let me say here: Revolutions are no more made than earthquakes and cyclones. Revolutions are the effect of certain causes and conditions. I have made social philosophy a specific study for more than ten years, and I could not have given vent to such nonsense! I do believe, however, that the revolution is near at hand—in fact, that it is upon us. But is the physician responsible for the death of the patient because he foretold that death? If any one is to be blamed for the coming revolution it is the ruling class who steadily refuses to make concessions as reforms become necessary; who maintain that they can call a halt to progress, and dictate a standstill to the eternal forces of which they themselves are but the whimsical creation. The position generally taken in this case is that we are morally responsible for the police riot on May 4. Four or five years ago I sat in this very court room as a witness. The workingmen had been trying to obtain redress in a lawful manner. They had voted and, among others, had elected their aldermanic candidate from the fourteenth ward. But the street car company did^not like the man. And two of the three election judges of one precinct, knowing this, took the ballot box to their home and "corrected" the election returns, so as to cheat the constituents of the elected candidate of their rightful representative and give the representation to the benevolent street car monopoly. The workingmen spent $1,500 in the prosecution of the perpetrators of this crime. The proof against them was so overwhelming that they confessed to having falsified the returns and forged the official documents. Judge Gardner, who was presiding in this court, acquitted them, stating that " that act had apparently not been prompted by criminal intent." I will make no comment.^ But when we approach the field of moral responsibility, It has an immense scope! Every man who has in the past assisted in thwarting the efforts of those seeking reform is responsible for the existence of the revolutionists in this city today! Those, however, who have sought to bring about reforms must be exempted from the responsibility—and to these I belong. If the verdict is based upon the assumption of moral responsibility your honor, I give this as a reason why sentence should not be passed. If the opinion of the court given this morning is good law, then there is no person in this country who could not lawfully be hanged. I vouch that upon the very laws you have read, there is no person in this court room now who could not be " fairly, impartially and lawfully " hanged 1 Fouche, Napo-