ADDRESS OF AUGUST SPIES.
increases. The education of a black slave a quarter of a century ago was a
criminal offense. Why? Because the intelligent slave would throw off his
shackles at whatever cost. Why is the education of the working people of
today looked upon by a certain class as an offense against the State? For the
same reason! The State, however, wisely avoided this point in the prosecution of this case. From their testimony one is forced to conclude that we
had, in our speeches and publications, preached nothing else but destruction
and dynamite. The court has this morning stated that there is no case in
history like this. I have noticed, during this trial, that the gentlemen of the
legal profession are not well versed in history. In all historical cases of this
kind truth had to be perverted by the priests of the established power that
was nearing its end.
What have we said in our speeches and publications?
We have interpreted to the people their conditions and relations in society. We have explained to them the different social phenomena and the
social laws and circumstances under which they occur. We have, by way of
scientific investigation, incontrovertibly proved and brought to their knowledge that the system of wages is the root of the present social iniquities-
iniquities so monstrous that they cry to heaven. We have further said that the
wage system, as a specific form of social development, would, by the necessity
of logic, have to give way to higher forms of civilization; that the wage system
must furnish the foundation for a social system of co-operation that is 8
cialism. That whether this or that theory, this or that scheme regarding future arrangements were accepted was not a matter of choice, but one of historical necessity, and that to us the tendency of progress seemed to be Anarchism
—that is, a free society without kings or classes—a society of sovereigns in
which liberty and economic equality of all would furnish an unshakahlp «™;
. *••"■ ***-iDi~i**iiauit5 equi
librium as a loundation for natural order.
It is not likely that the honorable Bonfield and Grinnell can conceive of a
social order not held intact by the policeman's club and pistol, nor of a free
society without prisons, gallows, and State's attorneys. In such a society
they probably fail to find a place for themselves. And is this the reason why
Anarchism is such a "pernicious and damnable doctrine?"
Grinnell has intimated to us that Anarchism was on trial. The theorv of
Anarchism belongs to the realm of speculative philosophy. There was not
syllable said about Anarchism at the Haymarket meeting. At that meeti
the very popular theme of reducing the hours of toil was discussed. Butf
"Anarchism is on trial!" foams Mr. Grinnell. If that is the case, your honor'
very well; you may sentence me, for I am an Anarchist. I believe with
Buckle, with Paine, Jefferson, Emerson, and Spencer, and many other gre t
thinkers of this century, that the state of castes and classes—the state wh *
one class dominates over and lives upon the labor of another class, and c 11
this order—yea, I believe that this barbaric form of social organization w'th
its legalized plunder and murder, is doomed to die, and make room for a f
society, voluntary association, or universal brotherhood, if you like. V
may pronounce the sentence upon me, honorable judge, but let the wo Id
know that in A. D. 1886, in the State of Illinois, eight men were sentenced
death, because they believed in a better future; because they had not 1 ?