Keyword
in
Collection
Date
to
The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Image 31
Citation
MLA
APA
Chicago/Turabian
Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 31. 1920. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. March 4, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1498.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. (1920). The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 31. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1498

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921, The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 31, 1920, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed March 4, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1498.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

URL
Embed Image
Compound Item Description
Title The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Series Title Freedom pamphlet
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921
Publisher Freedom Press
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • London
Date 1920
Subject.Topical (Local)
  • State, The
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English; French
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 42 pages; 18 cm.
Original Item Location JC268.K72
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304434~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
Note Translation of L'état, son role historique.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 31
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_5161590_030.jpg
Transcript The State: Its Historic R6le. 31 might the more easily fill them with its creatures. This lasted till 1801 when village communes wers revived; but then the government took it upon itself to appoint mayors and syndics in each of the 36,000 communes ! And this absurdity lasted till the revolution of July 1830, after which the law of 1789 was again put into force. And in the interval communal lands were again wholly confiscated by the State in 1813 and plundered anew during three years. What remained of them was only returned to the communes in 1816. This was oy no means the end. Every new regime saw in communal lands a source of reward for its supporters. Therefore at three different intervals since 1830—the first time in 1837 and the last under Napoleon III—laws were promulgated tojorce peasants to divide what they possessed of forests aud common pasture-lands, and three times the government was compelled to abrogate this law on account of the peasants resistance. All the same Napoleon the third was able to profit by it and bag several large estates for his favorites. These are facts, and this is what, in scientific language, these gentlemen call the " natural death " of the communal landed property under the influence of economic laws ? As well call the massacre of a hundred thousand soldiers on a battlefield " natural death." What happened in France happened also in Belgium, England, Germany, Austria; in fact everywhere in Europe, Slav countries excepted. Strange that the periods of plundering communes should correspond in all Western Europe. The methods alone vary. Thus in England they did not dare to enact sweeping measures; they preferred passing several thousands of separate enclosure acts by which, in each special case, parliament sanctioned the confiscation of land—it does so still— and gave to the squire the right of keeping common lands he had fenced in. And notwithstanding that nature has up till now respected the narrow furrows by which communal fields were temporarily divided among families in the villages of England, and that we have clear descriptions of this form of landed property at the beginning of the century in the books of a certain Marshall, scientific men (such as Seebohm, worthy emulator of Fustel de Coulanges) are not wanting to maintain and teach that communes have never existed in England save in the form of serfdom! _. T, . . We find the same thing going on in Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain. And in one way or another personal appropriation of lands formerly communal was almost brought to completion towards the fifties in this century. Peasants have only kept scraps of their common lands. This is the way in which the mutual assurance of lord, priest, ,