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The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Image 30
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Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 30. 1920. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. March 4, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1497.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. (1920). The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 30. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1497

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921, The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 30, 1920, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed March 4, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1497.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Series Title Freedom pamphlet
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921
Publisher Freedom Press
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • London
Date 1920
Subject.Topical (Local)
  • State, The
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English; French
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 42 pages; 18 cm.
Original Item Location JC268.K72
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304434~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
Note Translation of L'état, son role historique.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 30
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_5161590_029.jpg
Transcript 30 The State: Its Historic R6U. all the revenues of the communes.—This is what is called a " natural death " in so-called scientific language. In the following century it is estimated that at least half the communal lands were simply appropriated by the aristocracy and the clergy under State patronage. And yet communes continued to exist till 1787. The village council met under the elm, granted lands, appointed taxes —the documents relating to this are to be fouud in Babeau (Le village sous Vancien regime). Turgot, in the province of which he was governor, found however the village councils " too noisy " and abolished them during his governorship, substituting for them assemblies elected among the well-to-do of the village, In 1787, on the eve of the Revolution, the State made this measure general in its application. The mir was abolished and thus communal affairs fell into the hands of a few syndics, elected by the richest bourgeois and peasants. The " Consti- tuante" sanctioned this law in December 1789, and the bourgeois, substituting themselves for the nobles, plundered what remained of communal lands. Many a peasant revolt was necessary to force the " Convention" in 1792 to sanction what the rebellious peasants had accomplished in the Eastern part of France. That is to say, the Convention ordered the restitution of communal lands to the peasants. This only took place there, when the land had already been retaken by revolutionary means. It is the fate of all revolutionary laws to be put into action when they are already an accomplished fact. Nevertheless the Convention tainted this law with bourgeois gall. It decreed that lands retaken from nobles should be divided into equal parts among " active citizens " only—that is to say among the village bourgeois. By one stroke of. the pen it thus dispossessed " passive citizens," that is to say the mass of impoverished peasants, who had most need of these communal lands. Upon which, fortunately, the peasants again revolted and in 1793 the Convention passed a new law decreeing the division of communal lands among all inhabitants. This was never put into practice and only served as an excuse for new thefts of communal lands. Would not such measures suffice to bring about what these gentlemen call " the natural death " of communes ? Yet communes still existed. On August 24th 1794, the reaction, being in power, struck the final blow. The State confiscated all communal lands and made of them a guarantee fund for the public debt, putting them up to auction and selling them to its creatures the " Thermidorians." This law was happily repealed on Prairal 2nd, in the year V, after being in force for three years. But at the same time, communes were abolished, and replaced by cantonal councils in order that the State