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The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Image 9
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Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 9. 1920. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. March 4, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1476.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921. (1920). The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 9. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1476

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921, The state, its historic role, 5th edition - Image 9, 1920, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed March 4, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1512/show/1476.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title The state, its historic role, 5th edition
Series Title Freedom pamphlet
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich, kni͡azʹ, 1842-1921
Publisher Freedom Press
Place of Creation (TGN)
  • London
Date 1920
Subject.Topical (Local)
  • State, The
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English; French
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 42 pages; 18 cm.
Original Item Location JC268.K72
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8304434~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
Note Translation of L'état, son role historique.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 9
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_5161590_008.jpg
Transcript The State: Its Historic Rdle. 9 III. The village community was composed, as it still is, of separate f ami - ies; but the families of a village possessed the land in common. The y looked upon it as their common patrimony and allotted it according to the size of the families. Hundreds of millions of men live still under this system in Eastern Europe, India, Java, etc. It is the same system that Russian peasants have established nowadays, when the State left them free to occupy the immense Siberian territory as they thought best. At first the cultivation of the land was also done in common, and this custom still obtains in many places—at least, the cultivation of certain plots of land. As to deforestation and clearings made in the woods, construction of bridges, building of fortlets and turrets which served as refuge in case of invasion, they were done in common—as hundreds of millions of peasants still do—wherever the village commune has resisted State encroachments. But consumption, to use a modern expression, already took place by family—each having its own cattle, kitchen garden and provisions; the means of hoarding and transmitting wealth accumulated by inheritance already existed. In all its business, the village commune was sovereign. Local custom was law and the plenary council of all chiefs of families—men and women—was judge, the only judge, in civil and criminal affairs. When one of the inhabitants, complaining of another, planted his knife in the ground at the spot where the commune was wont to assemble, the commune had to " find the sentence " according to local custom, after the fact had been proved by the jurors of both litigant parties. Time would fail me were I to tell you everything of interest presented by this stage. Suffice it for me to observe that all institutions, which States took possession of later on for the benefit of minorities, all notions of right which we find in our codes (mutilated to the advantage of minorities), and all forms of judicial procedure, in as far as they offer guarantees to the individual, had their origin in the village community. Thus, when we imagine we have made great progress—in introducing the jury, for example,—we have only returned to the institution of the barbarians, after having modified it to the advantage of the ruling classes. Roman law was only superposed to customary law. The sentiment of national unity was developing at the same time, by great free federations of village communes. Based on the possession, and very often on the cultivation of the soil in common, sovereign as judge and legislator of customary law,—the village community satisfied most needs of the social being.