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The life and work of Friedrich Engels
Image 49
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Coates, Zelda K. (Zelda Kahan), 1886-1969. The life and work of Friedrich Engels - Image 49. 1920. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. October 29, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1119/show/1107.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Coates, Zelda K. (Zelda Kahan), 1886-1969. (1920). The life and work of Friedrich Engels - Image 49. Socialist and Communist Pamphlets. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1119/show/1107

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Coates, Zelda K. (Zelda Kahan), 1886-1969, The life and work of Friedrich Engels - Image 49, 1920, Socialist and Communist Pamphlets, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed October 29, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp/item/1119/show/1107.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title The life and work of Friedrich Engels
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Coates, Zelda K. (Zelda Kahan), 1886-1969
Publisher The Communist party of Great Britain
Date 1920
Subject.Name (LCNAF)
  • Engels, Friedrich, 1820-1895
Genre (AAT)
  • pamphlets
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Extent 51 pages; 19 cm.
Original Item Location HX276.E6C6 1920
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b8302356~S11
Original Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection Socialist and Communist Pamphlets
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/scpamp
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections
Use and Reproduction This item is in the public domain and may be used freely.
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 49
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_12044654_048.jpg
Transcript of Friedrich Engels 45 trade and so forth! Naturally! In a real workers' Republic there is, and should be, no room for parasitic elements. Marx and Engels, and the whole of history, have taught us that there are no such things as abstract moral truths or ethical rules that hold for all times. What might seem to be a universal rule of conduct or absolute truth in reality receives a particular interpretation in different ages even though we may use the almost identical words, but if there is a maxim, the justice of which ' would appeal in the abstract to all, in the concrete to the working class, certainly it is that "he who will not work (when able to do so by brain or hand) neither shall he eat." In any case, this is a maxim which is bound to, and rightly will, receive its full due and application in a Communist society, and the first stage in the establishment of the cooperative commonwealth is therefore to make work of all able-bodied and able-brained adults the test of citizenship. Territory, possessions were the characteristic tests of citizenship of the feudal and capitalist eras. It was, therefore, no wanton denial of rights or hatred towards an enemy, but sure instinct of the needs of the new society which caused our Russian comrades, and the Paris Commune (to a more limited extent, because of the different conditions) before it, to scrap the whole of the old State machinery, with its own peculiar methods and forms of elections and modes of work and introduce in its place institutions really representative of the workers as distinct from bourgeois or parasitic interests, namely, the Soviets or Councils of Workers, which, in their essence, cannot be other than democratic, in which every citizen of the workers' Republic has equal opportunity and equal right to exercise all his duties and privileges of citizenship. There is yet another reason why the Soviet or Workers' Councils system is the one most peculiarly adapted to the workers' Republic in its transition state towards complete Communism. Particular circumstances induce in all of us corresponding modes of thought and feelings. Thus the manufacturer or trader for instance, has a dual personality. As a manufacturer, it is his interest and his aim to get as high a price as possible for his wares, but as a consumer he quite as naturally grumbles at high prices, at the high cost of living. So, too, the shopkeeper, as such, will be interested in the improvement of his district, roads, means of communication and so forth for it improves his business, but as a ratepayer he constantly grumbles at the increase in rates. So the worker, when he votes as a resident of a district, will vote largely as a citizen of the bourgeois democracy to which he has been accustomed all his life. The social standing, wealth, charitable propensities and so forth of the particular candidate has considerable effect upon him. But when he votes in his union or workshop, he votes surrounded by the actual daily facts of his existence. He will then be less prone to be influenced by outside factors. When confronted by national and international questions he will view them in the first