Modem Science and Anarchism.
which the Idea, which in Logic was the "Idea in itself," and in Nature
the "Idea out of itself" (Idee ausser sich), now appears as "The Mind"
—as the "Idea in and for itself" (Idee an und fiir sich). These three
forms of the Idea are known as the thesis, the antithesis, and the synthesis.
The evil which this philosophy has done in driving scientific research
out of the sound ways it had opened by the end of the eighteenth century,
and giving a new authority both to the Biblical interpretation of Nature
and to the reign of sweeping generalisations based upon the use of
metaphysical "words" having a vague and floating sense—can be best
appreciated when we see how all the discoveries which were already
prepared by the end of the eighteenth century were delayed in appearing
for half a century; and also when we see the influence of this philosophy
in political matters—the Hegelians maintaining that "all that exists is
reasonable," and thus excusing the worst forms of political and religious
Helmholtz, Hermann-Ludwig (1821-1894), a great German physiologist
and physicist. Has done very much for developing and spreading the
mechanical comprehension of all physiological activity, and the idea of
the unity of physical forces.
Herzen, Alexander (1812-1870), Russian political writer. After
having been interned in an eastern province, left Russia and went to
Italy and France, where he was friendly with all the advanced Socialists
and Radicals. After the defeat of the Revolution of 1848, aided Proudhon
in starting the newspaper Le Peuple. Expelled from France, went to
England, where he founded the first "Free Russian Press," and at the
end of the "fifties" began to publish a Russian paper, Kdlokol (The Bell),
in collaboration with his great friend Ogareff and Turgueneff, and later
on with Bakunin. This paper, in which Herzen (in an admirable style)
energetically fought for the abolition of serfdom and laid bare all the
horrors of the absolute power, won a great reputation and had a great
influence in Russia at the time of the liberation of the serfs. In 1863,
when the Polish uprising began, Herzen and Bakunin warmly took up
its defence. With the return of reaction the same year, the KdlokoVs
influence came to an end. On account of his wide knowledge of history
and his philosophical training, Herzen was one of the best political
writers of his time in Europe; and his "Letters from France and Italy "
and "From the Other Bank" ("De l'autre rive"), written after the
defeat of the movements of 1848, are real works of art, apart from their
political meaning; the same applies to his autobiography, "Past and
Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679), one of the most original of English
political writers and philosophers. His chief works were : "Leviathan,"
"De Cive," "De Corpore Politico." Right, he maintained, is force:
there is nothing that would be right or wrong in itself. He considered
the savages as creatures continually struggling with each other, and saw