Modern Science and Anarchism.
collaboration of D'Alembert, Holbach, and all the best thinkers and men
of science of the time—notwithstanding the intrigues directed against
him by both the clergy and the civil authorities.
Encyclopaedists.—This is the name given to the founders of, the
contributors to, and the publishers of the great French "Encyclopaedia"
(1751). The most prominent among them were Dy Alimbert and Diderot.
This work was of immense importance for the philosophical development
of Europe, because not only was it an endeavour to give the whole of the
knowledge of the day in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, History, Art and
Literature, all treated in an impartial way; but it also was the organ of
all the thinkers of that time for the advanced, irreligious, rationalist
thought of France in the eighteenth century. The name of Encyclopaedists
is also extended to all those who shared their ideas.
Fechner, Gustav (1801-1887), German physiologist and philosopher.
Although a metaphysician and a follower of Schelling, he began to work
out physical psychology on a purely experimental ground. Matter and
Mind are for him of the same nature, and only represent for the human
understanding two different views of the same phenomena. Their laws
are the same. His "Elements of Psycho-Physics," an epoch-making
work, appeared in 1860.
Fourier, Francois Marie Charles (1772-1837), French Socialist writer;
with Robert Owen and Saint Simon, one of the three chief founders of
modern Socialism. The chief idea of his theory was: A full development
of human nature, free of all artificial fetters, is the absolutely necessary
condition for the attainment of happiness and virtue in society, while
misery and crime are the consequences of the unnatural constraint which
present society imposes upon man, even for permitting him to work in
order to satisfy his needs. The necessity of a reconstruction of society
on the basis of intelligent association follows from these principles.
Chief works: "Traite* des Quatre Mouvements," 1808; "Le Nouveau
Monde Industrie!," 1829. An important school of Socialism, which
included among its advocates Considerant, Leroux, and many others, was
developed by his pupils. For information concerning them, see Kirkup's
"History of Socialism."
Godwin, William (1756-1836), English political writer. His principal
work was "An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on
General Virtue and Happiness " (2 vols., London, 1793), in which he was
the first to expound the ideas of Anarchist Communism. By " political "
justice he understands the realisation of the principles of morality and
truth in the life of the community. He shows in his work that a
Government, by the mere fact of its existence—by its very nature—stands
in the way of the development of moral habits; so also private ownership ; and he foresees the time when each one, free from coercion and
acting in accordance with his own free will, will act for the good of the
community—all being led in their actions by the principles of pure