Modem Science and Anarchism.
ihonsands of copies of this work were circulated in Germany, France,
and Russia. He also wrote a work "Love" (describing sociability and
sympathetic instincts in animals); " Man and his Position in Nature'
(also very widely read in Germany and France), a popular exposition of
Darwinism; "Love and Love Relations in the Animal World," 1885;
"Last Words on Materialism," London, 1901; etc. By all these works
he has powerfully contributed to the diffusion of a materialistic—i.e.,
dynamic—comprehension of Nature.
Buffon, Georges (1707-1788), great French naturalist. Made the first
attempt to construct a full system of Nature and to give a full description
of the animal world on the bases of comparative anatomy. One of the
chief services he has rendered was that, notwithstanding a severe opposition and the menaces of the Church, he put an end to the intervention of
theology in questions of natural science. Chief work: "Natural History."
Buonarroti, Filippo (1761-1837), Italian lawyer. Was influenced by
the ideas of Rousseau, and was expelled from Italy, Corsica, and Sardinia,
for propagating revolutionary ideas. Came to Paris during the Great
Revolution, and joined Babeuf for the propaganda of revolutionary
Communism. Was involved in the Babeuf conspiracy in 1795, and wrote
a description of it, "The Conspiracy of Babeuf." Later on was the chief
inspirer of the secret Communist societies in France and Italy in the
"twenties" and "thirties" of the nineteenth century.
.Byeta^ (1810-1873), a Russian historian and student of old Russian
law; has told better than any other historian, in four small volumes
("Tales from Russian History"), the inner life of the mediaeval republics
of Novgorod and Pskov. Has also written an excellent history of the
Russian Peasantry and a work on Russian annals.
Cabet, Etienne (1788-1856), French Communist, who developed his
ideas in his journal, Le Populaire; and published in 1842 his chief work,
"A Journey to Icaria," in which he developed in full his theory of
authoritarian State Communism. This work was widely read and went
through many editions, that of 1856 containing an analysis of the
predecessors of Cabet, including those of the French Revolution. In
1848 he attempted to put his ideas into practice in Texas, and later on in
the State of Illinois, but failed. Still, the colony, "Young Icaria,"
continued to exist in the " eighties " of last century.
Clausius, Rudolf (1822-1888), German physicist, renowned for his
studies on optics, electricity, and especially the mechanical theory of
heat, of which he established one of the fundamental laws.
Comte, Auguste (1798-1857), the founder of Positivism. His "Course
of Positive Philosophy" is an attempt at working out a synthetic
philosophy of all human knowledge on a purely scientific foundation.
Positive philosophy meant, in Comte's conception, the following:—He
established that all human knowledge began first as theological conceptions (for instance, man considers thunder as an expression of