institutions and the social, moral, and religious conceptions are, however, often considered as part of Ethnology. By "Anthropological
School" we mean those who, in the second half of the nineteenth century,
studied the origins and evolution of conceptions and social institutions
from the point of view of natural science, without appealing to supernatural intuition, and without trying to conceal the gaps in our knowledge by vague and incomprehensible metaphysical words.
Babeuf, Francois Noel (1764-1797), Frenoa Communist, took part in
the Revolution, and published a paper, Tribun du Peuple, in which he
preached the social revolution. After the fall of the Robespierre party,
he organised, with Sylvain Marechal, Darth6, and several others, a secret
Communist society, which intended to overthrow the Government and to
constitute a Communist Directorate. The conspiracy was betrayed, and
the leaders were shot in 1797.
Bacon, Francis (1561-1626), great English philosopher, known as the
father of the "inductive" method of scientific research, because he was
the first to show that research and discovery will only be able to progress
when the human mind has grown accustomed to consider observation and
free, methodical, experimental research as the only means to discover
natural laws and the true causes of phenomena. Scholastic wisdom,
which only juggled with words, had to be given up, and true knowledge
be acquired through induction—i.e., through the closest study of the
separate phenomena themselves, before generalisations are "induced."
This was the fundamental idea of all his work, and this is why Bacon is
truly considered as the father of modern science. (See below, "Inductive-
Bain, Alexander (born 1818), one of the chief English representatives
of physiological psychology. His chief works were: " Mind and Body,"
"The Senses and the Intellect."
Bakunin, Michael (1814-1876), political writer and an indefatigable
revolutionist. Took part in all the revolutionary and Socialist movements of his own times, in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, and
Poland. Had a prominent part in the Dresden revolution of 1849. Was
condemned after its defeat to lifelong imprisonment, and extradited by
the Saxon Government to Austria. After a two years' confinement in an
Austrian fortress, where he was chained to the wall, he was surrendered
to the Russian Tsar, Nicholas I., who kept him imprisoned in the fortress
of St. Petersburg till 1856. Released after the death of Nicholas I., he
was banished to Siberia, where he was very well received by the then
Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, N. Muravioff-Amursky. Escaping
from Vladivostok in 1862, he came to London, and took the liveliest part
in the European revolutionary agitation. He soon became a member of
the International Working Men's Association, joining the Jura Federation, which, in opposition to the General Council of the International,
was the stronghold of the Federalist, anti-Statist, revolutionary, and