Modern Science and Anarchism.
the French followers of Fourier, they attached a great importance
to the freely constituted and federated communities or groups,
which would own in common their land, their factories, and their
stores; while remuneration for work, both within each industrial
village, and in the exchange between the different groups, would
be made by means of labour-cheques, representing the hours of
labour that wero spent by each person in the communal fields,
workshops, or factories.
The same idea of remuneration by labour-cheques was advocated, as we have already seen, by Proudhon and his Mutualist
followers. They also repudiated the coercive intervention of
the State, both during the transitory period and the subsequent
Socialist life. They considered that what now constitutes the
functions of the State in economic matters could be accomplished by the branches of the Bank of the People and the
Clearing Houses ; while education, sanitary arrangements, and so
on ought to be in the hands of entirely independent Communes.
Again, the same idea of labour-cheques taking the place of
money in all exchanges, but with a State ownership of all the
land, the mines, the railways, and the factories, was advocated by
two remarkable writers, Pecqueur and Vidal, who described their
system as Collectivism. Pecqueur, who was a member of the
Constituent Assembly in 1848, wrote a whole treatise on this
matter, in which he developed his system in full—even in the
shape of laws which the Assembly had only to vote to accomplish
the Social Revolution. The names of Vidal and Pecqueur were
quite forgotten by that time, but their ideas were widely spread,
and they were soon revived among the Germans under the names
of "Marxism," "scientific Socialism," or "Collectivism."
By the side of these different schools, the ideas of the Saint-
Simonist school had a considerable hold upon many minds in the
International Working Men's Association, as they also had had
among the revolutionists of 1848.
A great number of brilliant writers, politicians, and industrialists, among whom suffice it to name the philosopher Auguste
Comte, the historian Augustin Thierry, and the economist
Sismondi, had developed under the inspiration of the teachings
of Saint-Simon. And their work had deeply influenced most
Human progress—they said—bad hitherto consisted in transforming Slavery into Serfdom, and Serfdom into the "vv*age
System. But the time had now come to abolish the Wage