Modern Science and Anarchism.
It is easy to see, however—as has been indicated more than
once by Anarchist writers, and lately by the French professor,
V. Basch, in an interesting work, " Anarchist Indivrdualism:
Max Stirner" (1904, in French)—that this sort of Individualism,
aiming as it does at the " full development," not of all members
of society, but of those only who would be considered as the most
gifted ones, without caring for the right of full development for
all—is merely a disguised return towards the now-existing
education-monopoly of the few. It simply means a " right to
their full development" for the privileged minorities. But, as
such monopolies cannot be maintained otherwise than under the
protection of a monopolist legislation and an organised coercion
by the State, the claims of these Individualists necessarily end
in a return to the State idea and to that same coercion which
they so fiercely attack themselves. Their position is thus the
same as that of Spencer, and of all the so-called "Manchester
school" of economists, who also begin by a severe criticism of
the State and end in its full recognition in order to maintain
the property monopolies, of which the State is the necessary
Such was the growth of Anarchist ideas, from the French
Revolution and Godwin to Proudhon. The next step was made
within the great "International Working Men's Association,"
which so much inspired the working classes with hope, and the
middle classes with terror, in the years 1868-1870—just before
the Franco-German War.
That this Association was not founded by Marx, or any other
personality, as the hero-worshippers would like us to believe, is
self-evident. It was the outcome of the meeting, at London, in
1862, of a delegation of French working men, who had come to
visit the Second International Exhibition, with representatives
of British Trade Unions and Radicals, who received that
Already in 1830 Robert Owen had made an attempt at
organising, beside his "Great National Trades' Union," an
"International Union of All Trades"; but the idea had soon to
be abandoned, in consequence of the wild prosecutions that the
British Government directed against the National Trades' Union.
However, the idea was not lost. It smouldered in England; it
found followers in France; and after the defeat of the Revolution
of 1848, it was taken by some French refugees across the Atlantic,
and propagated in the United States, in a paper, U Internationale.