Schelling, Friedrich (1775-1854), a German philosopher of the period
of reaction. Attempted to build up a system which would embody all
Nature; but, partly from want of a knowledge of natural science, and
partly from preconceived ideas, stranded in metaphysics.
Siguin, Marc (1786-1875), French engineer. Was the first to measure
the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Shaman is the name given to sorcerers by the different populations of
Northern Asia. They are supposed to deal with the dark forces of
Nature. By their incantations and dances they are supposed to conjure
illness and all sorts of misfortunes.
Smith, Adam (1723-1790), English economist and philosopher mr
founder of Political Economy as a science based on observation and on
the inductive methods, which he developed in his classical work, "The
Wealth of Nations." In that work he considered wealth as the product
of labour, and criticised the many obstacles which Governments at that
time put in the way of the growth of industry and commerce—thus
becoming the founder of the so-called "Liberal school" of Political
Economy. In a far less known, very much boycotted, and yet very deep
work, "The Theory of Moral Sentiments," he wrote a full theory of
Ethics based on the common observations of mutual sympathy.
Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903), English philosopher who developed a
full system of synthetic philosophy on a materialistic basis, embodied in
the following works: "First Principles," "Principles of Biology,"
•'Principles of Psychology," "Principles of Sociology," "Ethics."
Also "The Man versus the State"; an excellent little work on Education;
a polemics against Weismann upon the direct action of surroundings
and natural selection; and so on. In his "Principles of Biology"
he developed a full theory of evolution, based chiefly on the lines of
Lamarck's "Transformism," i.e., on the direct action of the surroundings modifying the organisms in the sense of adaptation to their
surroundings ("direct adaptation"),—natural selection ("the indirect
adaptation") only coming in to aid the preservation of the best adapted
("survival of the fittest"), and to give stability to the acquired
Thierry, Augustin (1795-1856), a renowned French historian, who
combined an admirable descriptive talent with a deep study and comprehension of the primitive institutions of the so-called "barbarian" period.
His "Letters on the History of France" give the best key to a comprehension of this period, and of the subsequent period of independent
city-republics in France. He also wrote a history of the Norman
Conquest of England.
Vogt, Karl (1817-1895), Swiss naturalist and politician, professor of
geology and zoology. Took part in the Revolution of 1848 in Germany.
Author of several purely scientific works, and an excellent populariser.
Materialist and follower of Darwin after the appearance of "Origin of