Modern Science and Anarchism.
intended to combine the workers of all the civilised countries, and was
thus a precursor of the International Working Men's Association—
compelled Owen and his associates to limit their activities to peaceful
Co-operation and moderate Trade Unionism. His principal works were:
" Outline of a Rational System," "The Book of the New Moral World,"
and "Revolution in the Mind and Practice of the Human Race"; but he
issued countless smaller writings and papers, and created quite a school
of English Socialists, unfortunately forgotten now.
Proudhon, Pierre (1809-1865), French Socialist, the most powerful
critic of the capitalist system and the State, as well as the authoritarian
systems of Communism and Socialism. About his own system of
Mutualism, see the text of this book. Chief works: "What is
Property?" "System of Economic Contradictions"; "Confessions of a
Revolutionist"; "General Idea about the Revolution in the Nineteenth
Century " ; "On the Political Capacity of the Working Class "; etc.
Ricardo, David (1772-1823), an English economist of the school
considered as "classical" by the Universities. He fully developed, after
Adam Smith, the theory that the amount of necessary labour is the
standard and measure of the exchange value of all marketable goods; and
also a theory of ground rent, to which the Universities attribute a
scientific value. His chief work was "On the Principles of Political
Economy and Taxation " (1817).
Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712-1778), French philosoper. A forerunner of the Great Revolution, whose writings, together with those of
Mably, greatly influenced most of those who stood foremost in the
Revolution, especially in its Jacobinist wing. He preached the return to
a simple and natural lifo, equality, democratic and republican institutions, and a sound education embodying a knowledge of both science and
manual work; and he endeavoured to lay the foundations of a natural
religion which might supersede Church Christianity. He has had an
ardent follower in Leo Tolstoy. Chief works: "On the Origin of
Inequality among Men," "Le Contrat Social," "Emile," "Le Vicaire
Savoyard," "The New Heloise," and "Mes Confessions."
Saint-Simon (1760-1825), with Fourier and Robert Owen one of the
three great founders of nineteenth-century Socialism. He endeavoured to
base his conclusions upon a solid study of the economic relations, such
as they exist in society, and upon the laws of their development; and
through that his teachings—" Saint-Simonism "—found a great number
of followers, and inspired a great number of the best thinkers (Auguste
Comte), historians (Augustin Thierry), economists (Sismondi), and
industrial philanthropists of the nineteenth century. His practical
conclusions were leading him to an association of Capital and Labour.
All the leading theoretical principles of so-called "Scientific Socialism,"
or "Marxism," are but a further development of the theoretical ideas-
advocated by the Saint-Simonists.