Modern Science and Anarchism.
Maine, Henry (1822-1888), English student of common law, ancient
and modern, and the author of a remarkable work on the early village
community. Chief works: "Village Communities in the East and
West," and "Lectures on the Early History of Institutions."
Marx, Karl (1818-1883), founder of the Social Democratic school of
Socialism. Having left Germany as a political refugee, settled first in
Paris, where he published, with Ruge, a Radical paper in German.
Expelled from France in 1844, and from Belgium in 1848, he settled in
London, where he was, in 1864, one of the chief founders of the International Working Men's Association, and the intellectual leader of the
General Council of the Association. Chief works: "The Misery of
Philosophy" (1847)—a reply to Proudhon's "Philosophy of Misery"
("Economical Contradictions"); "Communist Manifesto" (1848), (about
its origin, see W. TcherkesofFs "Pages of Socialist History," 1896, and
Professor Andler's "Historical Introduction" to it, in French, 1901);
and especially his principal work, "Capital," of which the first (chief)
volume appeared in 1867, containing a remarkable analysis of the genesis
of capital, and became the foundation of the economical ideas of Social
Democracy. Two more volumes of "Capital"—the last being a posthumous work—appeared later on.
Maurer, Georg Ludwig (1796-1872), a German historian, who has put
on a scientific basis the study of th* old village community. Chief
work: "Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-, Hof-, Dorf-fund Stadt-
Mechanical Theory of Heat, one of the greatest acquisitions of modern
science. It consists in its being now proved that all the phenomena
which we describe as heat phenomena (thc heating of a body, its cooling,
its melting, its boiling, the transformation of a liquid into a gaseous
state, etc.) are the results of vibrations of the molecules of physical
bodies. When the sum of these vibrational movements (invisible to the
eye) which are going on in, let us say, a piece of iron, increases, the
temperature of that piece of iron increases also. And vice versd. Heat is
thus a mood of motion. This is why we can produce heat by friction.
The mass-movement of a train which is brought to a state of rest by
powerful brakes, is spent in the friction of the wheels of the train upon
the rails, and there it appears as heat in the heated rails and as sparks
thrown from under the wheels. The quantity of mechanical force which
is required to heat one pound of water by so many degrees can be
measured ; it has been measured with great accuracy; and this quantity
is known as "the mechanical equivalent of heat." The mechanical
theory of heat was foreseen, and even partly expressed, in the eighteenth
century. Later on, in the "twenties" of the nineteenth century, it was
expressed by Se'guin senior, who had already made the necessary measurements. Rudolf Meyer, a German doctor, was the first to formulate it, in
1845, in a comprehensible and correct form; but he was not listened to.