Sciences get more women, minorities
WASHINGTON (AP) — The percentages of women
and racial minorities employed as scientists and engineers have increased markedly since 1974, but the
actual numbers remain relatively small, says a National Science Foundation report.
The report to Congress issued Saturday, termed the
most comprehensive of its kind, said minorities and
females are'making gains in technical fields, but the
progress Is slow.
Each group makes up less than 10 percent of the
science and engineering work force, makes less
money than comparable' white males and is under-
represented In management positions, the figures
The foundation, which funds much of the country's
baric research and monitors the state of the nation's
science, was directed by Congress in 1961 to do such a
manpower report every two years.
The report primarily covered data from 1974 to 1978
from many sources, but also included some information up to 1980.
Dr. John B. Slaughter, foundation director, said
there has long been a concern about the scientific talent the nation loses in the underrepresentation of
women and minorities.
Pre-college preparation, the lack of role models, expected job opportunities and other social and cultural
variables seem to be factors in keeping women and
minorities out of technical training, the report said.
These groups tended to take fewer math and
science courses in high school and college, and tended
to study In the social sciences rather than the physical:
sciences, it said.
Despite difficulties, the number of women scientists
and engineers employed at all degree levels increased
almost 32 percent (to 232,000) between 1974 and 1978.
But this increase brought women up to only 9.4 percent of the total scientific work force, the report said.
During.the same period, employment of engineers
and scientists from racial minorities rose almost 25
percent, to 39,000. But this increased their share of the
science and engineering work force only to about 4
percent, said the study.
Taken by themselves, blacks represented only 1.6
percent of the total technical workforce by 1978, it
Like women, blacks tended to be concentrated in
the social sciences and psychology. In these fields,
blacks represent about 5 percent of the total, but in
engineering they make up only about 1 percent.
In terms of salary, women, scientists and engineers
received about 80 percent of the amount paid to men.
Unemployment figures also were higher for women,
2.4 percent compared with L3 percent Jor males.
Racial minorities also received lower salaries than
whites in most cases. Among those in the labor force
since 1970, blacks got an average of $24,900 annually
compared with $27,300 for whites.
Black engineers were an exception in that they
generally received slightly higher salaries than
wh ee, the report noted.
LESBIAN/GAY CIVIL RIGHTS
Hearings were held on January 28 on H.R. 1454. This
bill is called the Weis/Waxman Gay Civil Rights Legislation. It would amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964
to prohibit discrimination on the basis of "affect-
ional or sexual orientation" in employment, housing,
public facilities, and federally-assisted programs.
While this bill does not stand a good chance of being
passed by the House, it does provide an excellent
opportunity to raise the issue with legislators and
provide some education. Hearings are one of the
primary methods legislators use to learn about issues.
Some key points to include when writing your congress-
- Discrimination against any group in a society
affects all people living in that society adversely.
- A majority of Americans support Lesbian/Gay civil
rights (for information on the polls, see Lesbian
Rights Resource Kit at NOW's desk in Campus
Activities, Underground UC.)
- The economic impact of Discrimination is disastrous. Twenty million Americans face the threat of
losing their jobs regardless of job performance should
their sexual preference become known.
(We are including the addresses of Texas Congressper-
sons so you can write to yours about this. Heterosexual women must - in their own interest - write also.
There is no defense against being labeled "Lesbian"
and uppity feminists surely will be. For anyone who
needs more information on why this is important to all
feminists, we have articles and position papers at NOW
desk on campus.)
Re Senate Vote reported'on
page 7: Who do they think
they are kidding?Millions
of rural children are bussed many more miles and
many more minutes to give
them a quality education.
It's only when we try to
'that rides are too long.
U.S. Rep. Shirley Chisholm, has accused the
Reagan admimstration of "destroying the quality of life
for America;particularly for the poor, ethnic minor--
ities and women.
"Many of the things we
(blacks and women) have
gained in the past 15 years are !
on the legislative or executive
i assault," Chisholm told a
luncheon audience Friday at
the Shamrock Hilton. The
meeting was sponsored by the
Congressional Black Caucus
and the Minority Women's Association.
At a news conference later,
she stopped short of calling
President Reagan a racist,
but said his actions "lead me Chisholm
! to think there are some racial overtones."
Chisholm, who in 1968 became the first black woman
to win election to the U.S. House, announced earlier this
week that she would not seek another term. On Friday,
she indicated her future activities would include organizational work for female political candidates, but she
declined to specify her plans.
"This is not my funeral," she said.
Chisholm, who canipaigned in 29 states during a presidential campaign of her own in 1972, said there was a
bloodless "revolution" taking place in Washington.
"The restructuring of the federal government under
the guise of the New Federalism concept is actually
destroying the quality of life for America," she said.
She also called Reagan's New Federalism "another
name for a return to states' rights" and blasted the
adniinistration-sponsored tax cuts as "fraud and deception being perpetrated on the American people."
"They are designed to benefit primarily thoset
individuais in the $0,000 per year bracket or better,"*
Chisholm warned that the Republican administration
has embarked on a military spending program that
could result in federal expenditures of $1 trillion , or
almost 60 percent of the budget, on defense by IMS to
the further detriment of social programs.
"How can you be like Rip Van Winkle when this type
of program is moving and we are in peacetime?" she
asked, urging her listeners to wake up, do their "home-'
work'' and study congressional voting records.
The congresswoman said sexism was 'alive and1
kicking" in Washington and cited administration plans
to change Title 9 of Education Act. That legislation was*
enacted in 1972 to prohibit discrimination based on gender at schools and universities receiving federal ftinds.
One proposed change, she said, would require that
only programs receiving federal funds, not the entire