HARRY CALDWELL, Chief of Police.
What is Pornography ?
I don't define pornography. The courts
define pornography and the law defines
pornography. The law lays down certain
guidelines, but in the final analysis it's the
court that decides. The law says that
pornography is defined as those things
that appeal to the prurient interest of the
community. And there are many communities.
The only way that one can determine
whether a given article, program, work of
art, whatever, is pornographic is to submit it to a jury. The jury will then make a
decision based on the community standards as to whether that is pornographic.
Having held that Deep Throat was not
pornographic, I concluded that there
probably wasn't much that was.
In my own opinion, Deep Throat
would qualify under my definition of
pornography-those things which appeal
to a prurient interest. We felt that under
that statute, Deep Throat probably met
the criteria for pornography, but the juries did not think at that time that it did.
Now, community interests and com
munity standards change. I don't know
what they will say now. We're in abeyance
in terms of the enforcement of certain
obscenity statutes, and we will again go
with test cases under the law. My job is to
enforce the law, not to determine what a
community reads or what it looks at or
what it uses for self-stimulation. My job is
simply to try to enforce the law.
Obviously, it is not a priority to which
I will dedicate the majority of the Houston Police Department resources. It is one
of many priorities. The primary concern
of the Houston Police Department is the
exploitation of children in relation to
pornography. There is a segment of the
whose interests are piqued by young children engaging in sexual behavior either
with each other or with adults.
I will be very adamant in enforcement
of the statutes. So in order to determine
if they are being violated, I have to keep
them under continuous surveillance, as I
do the arrested-sexual-development bookstores, where children are likely to be exploited, or the massage parlors, where it is
not uncommon to find young people involved.
I think the media generally refers to
adult bookstores as being stores where
persons peer at naked individuals of
either sex and then peer around the
booths at each other's private parts. How
this came to be known as adult behavior,
I don't know. It would occur to me that
it's much more descriptive of arrested
I think that all children go through a
period of peering at their genitalia somewhere around the age of five to six. These
are persons who continue to peer at their
genitalia and the genitalia of others, so it
would occur to me that this is more reflective of arrested sexual development than
it is adult behavior.
I don't know how it came to become
known as adult bookstores because normal sexually oriented individuals, who
have completed the cycles of psycho-sexual development, generally do not find it
necessary to peer at each others' genitalia
or pictures of naked children or things of
this sort. So it would occur to me that
this is probably arrested sexual development rather than adult behavior.
Pornography and Violence
I'll have to take an academic stand in the
middle of the road because there seems to
be, in the academic world, research that
supports two premises. One, that it does
cause a diminution of the respect for the
female, that the female is used as an exploitative tool in pornography. There is
another equally respectable academic
school that alleges that this is a harmless
outlet for thase individuals who have not
completed a normal adult-sexual-development cycle.
I think it beyond my sphere as Chief
of Police to determine exactly the influence that it has. I can honestly say that I
don't know, but I can also honestly say
that in our investigation of sexual crimes
against females, it is extremely difficult
for us to make this determination. I can
only quote to you that there are two fairly respectable schools of behavioral scientists with diametrically opposing views on
I cannot cite for you a specific case
where the assault of a female was occasioned by this sort of behavior, nor can I
cite to you any absence of proof that
these sorts of things might result in agres-
siveness towards females. Most sexual offenses towards females are not sexually
oriented. They are aggresively oriented,
and this seems to be pretty characteristic.
It would occur to me that it is through
the pornographic presentations of sadism
and masochism that those practitioners
learn the techniques to be used, and the
paraphernalia to be used. The art by
which they exercise these things is probably learned as most human behavior is
learned. They learn what techniques to
use and what equipment to use, and what
they define, I would expect, to be role
models, from the pornography that depicts this type of behavior.
As a matter of fact, after Clockwork
Orange was shown around the United
States, police reported cases where gangs
tried to emulate the Clockwork Orange
type of syndrome. We see it in the movies
like The Warriors, where the young people
began to mimic the activities of the Warrior gangs. So I have reason to believe
that these exploitations of women, and
children as well-that the model for these
things may well be emanating from the
sleazy studios or the porno shops.
GENEVA KIRK BROOKS, President of
Citizens Against Pornography.
What is Pornography ?
You have to go back to the original meaning of pornography to understand really
what it means now. It comes from the
Greek word pome which means prostitute, and originally pornography was any
description of prostitutes in their trade.
Of course, as we use it now, it would be
any writings or pictures or anything used
to arouse great sexual desire, or to stimulate a person sexually.
Pornography and Violence.
As far as the connection between the way
women are shown in pornography and
the way that they are treated. . . In pornography, women are dehumanized and
almost always shown as simply tools for
sexual gratification for men. One of the
main reasons that we oppose pornography so violently is because of this de-
humanization of the woman and the fact
that she is just used as a tool of sexual
gratification for men.
In pornography, if you have seen very
much pornography, you see that it gets
more and more violent, showing bestiality
and sado-masochistic acts in which there
are chains and tortures and so forth. Another thing about pornography which is
equate it with erotica, which is not
necessarily obscene. We as lawyers are
basically bound by what is called the
Miller standard which gives us the definition of obscenity.
We are having problems with the
amended sections of the Texas statute
under House Bill 1741 which is being
attacked in the federal courts. It is our
position that the Texas Legislature has
deviated from the requirements of Miller
vs. California, which defines as obscene
that which, as a whole, has a dominant
theme that appeals to the prurient interest of the average person.
When applying contemporary community standards, it's that which depicts
or describes sexual conduct in a patently
offensive way, and that which lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific
value. What I find to be obscene is really
a matter of personal preference or personal like versus dislike. That which I find
to be offensive basically would be anything that deals with children in a sexual
By that I do not mean, for example,
that I find the novel Lolita to be obscene,
because that was a very fine novel and a
very fine movie that starred Richard Burton. I do not mean something that deals
with children in that vein. I am talking
about child-type pornography, which I
find to be obscene. It's just a matter of
my personal feelings regarding bestiality,
the sexual act with animals, which I find
to be obscene. And matters of violence I
also find to be obscene.
Pornography and Violence.
I feel that when you're talking about the
X-rated movies of today, there isn't any
more violence where women are concerned, than men maybe. For example, in
the movie Deep. Throat, linda Lovelace
was enjoying herself just as much as any
man was enjoying himself in the film.
I think in times past the attitude was
that women were not supposed to enjoy
"The attitudes about women expressed in pornography seem horribly consistent with those of the
larger society in which women are victims of sexual harassment at work, violent crimes in the
street and rape in the marital bed.
—Dr. Virginia Davidson
so damaging, is that in almost all cases
where snuff murders occur (films or photographs depicting an actual murder of a
sexual object) or where there is sex abuse
of children, there is always an abundance
of pornographic material found there.
The book Show Me, which is extremely pornographic but is published as a sex
education book for children, shows all
sorts of acts, even the act of oral sodomy,
as acceptable behavior. That book was
found so often in homes where incest was
discovered that it received special mention in State Rep. Ralph Wallace's report
So this is pornography that is used to
damage children and encourage them in
This is apparently an acceptable book
that can be obtained from the public library to encourage children to do the
things in this book, and that leads to
other acts. Of course, when people are
disappointed with the gratification or the
lack of gratification they receive from
one act, they go on to something more
and more extreme, and that's why you
get such a build up of violence in sex.
MARIAN ROSEN, Attorney participating
in the federal lawsuit in which a group of
theaters and bookstores as complainants
are seeking to have the amendments to
the Texas obscenity statute held unconstitutional.
What is Pornography ?
In defining pornography, I actually
sex, that they were just supposed to be
sex objects. Men were the only ones that
were supposed to enjoy sex. But the
world has changed and women have become human beings. We're permitted now,
and entitled to enjoy sexual matters as
much as men do.
I think it is interesting to note that if
you go to the book stores or theaters
you'll find that, in most cases, half of the
customers are female. If you go to any of
the X-rated movies, quite often you'll see
a couple of women in the theater, and the
bulk of the customers are couples. I don't
think any of these people feel that women are being discriminated against or
treated with violence.
Furthermore, I don't feel that the matters that you see depicted stimulate violence towards women. I don't think that
the depictions, for example, of women in
Playboy or Hustler create any more violence towards women than pictures of the
nude male in Playgirl cause and create
violence towards men.
JOE SPIEGEL, President of Theaters
What is Pornography?
I've never really thought about defining
pornography. I would call what we're involved in "sexually explicit movies." We
don't deal in any other things like books
and massage parlors. I guess an overall
definition would be sexually explicit
material or magazines or books that describe sexually explicit material. That