26 PICTURESQUE PALESTINE.
I ,ebanon : i. The ancient" Cedars of the Lord" above Bsherreh, three hundred and ninetv-th
in number (see page 474, vol. i.). 2. The grove at the fountain of Ehden, fifty tree TW*
at grove between El Hadeth and Niha, numbering tens of thousands of tn
a of nearly twelve miles. 4. A smaller grove farther south on the summit and brink of th-
precipice, > The scattered trees above Duma. 6. The Ain Zehalteh grov( an(|
trees, cut down by Murad Akil, and now growing up again. 7. A small grove 011 the cliff
Overhanging IT Meduk. S. A small cluster near Kul'at el Bizzeh. 9. The fine
Masir el Lukhkhar, about three hundred trees, some of great si, 10. The of Jjr(] e|
Baruk, thousands of trees. 11. The eastern grove of Baruk, about two hundred tn -
The first historical notice of the cedars of Lebanon is in the reign of David, when this
monarch built himself a palace of cedar-wood (2 Samuel v. 11). Solomon caused cedars to be
brought from Lebanon for the building of the Temple, and they were floated down the coast
from Jebeil to Jaffa, after being cut by the " fotir score thousand hewers in the mountain 536 b.c Zerubbabel hired the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon "to bring cedar from
Lebanon to the Sea of Joppa." The cedar was also used in shipbuilding and in idol
manufacture. Tiglath Tileser, after his successful campaigns against the Khatti and the
Hittites and the subjugation of Carchemish, visited the Lebanon for the purpose of obta
cedar wood to adorn the temples and palaces of Kileh Shergat. The groves of Lebanon fa .
thus been despoiled for three thousand years by the kings of the adjacent countries, until the
upper ranges are quite denuded, and the voracity of the flocks of goats in nipping the tend
shoots, and the rapacity of the fellahin, are preventing the growth of new forests from the seed.
Were it not Un' the energetic action of the Lebanon Government the whole mountain
soon be stripped of its forest glory.
The geological formation of Lebanon is the lower cretaceous limestone with a stratum
ferruginous sandstone running through it almost from one end to the other, ami here and tin
an outcropping of trap, amygdaloid or partially columnar. In the sandstone is a well-defii
stratum of bituminous coal or lignite, which crops out at Kornail and elsewhere in the district
of IT Metn, east of Beirut (see sketch map, page 12). The Jura limestone has been found
Professor Lewis, of the Beirut College, in but one place, at Mejdel Shems, on the southern
slope of Mount Hermon, where the Jurassic fossils, such as half-crystallized Ammo;
have been found in great profusion.
The strata of the Lebanon rocks, upheaved by mighty internal convulsions ot KiatUI
stand ai every conceivable angle of inclination. On the very top of Ard Akliik is a singular
battlemented hill called Jebel Akluk, looking in the distance like an artificial fortress. !'
around it on the west, we turn south east and begin the four mile descent to Ak ;ra. whic
lies at the head oi the great valley of Mogh&riye, or "little cavern.*' To th< ' **
village rises a rock wall one thousand feel in height, through which a narrow chasm has
rent, opening a highway to the oast, the shortest route from this point. VtA Ain Kumeh, to
lars and to Ba'albek, VtA Yamuneh (see page 15). The village is small, but the ski