2 PICTURESQUE PALESTINE.
One of the most striking historic names in Northern Syria is KuTat Kadmus, about twelve
hours south-east of Ladakiyeh, probably the former home of Cadmus, who first brought letters
In prosecuting our journey through Phoenicia from north to south we will begin at the
northernmost relic of Phoenician architecture in Syria, the secluded " Husn Suleiman." In
company with the Rev. S. Jessup, of Tripoli, and Professor Dodge, of the S. P. College in Beirut,
we visited this then unexplored and comparatively unknown ruin a few years since. We spent
Tuesday night at Mahardee, near the castle of Seijar, on the Orontes, north-west of Hamath;
and on Wednesday took a south-west course to the foot of the Nusairiyeh mountain range,
then ascended a rocky precipitous steep, several hundred feet in height, through tangled forests
of oak, to the summit of the range near 'Ain esh Shems, or Fountain of the Sun. Farther to
the west we rode down a narrow valley to 'Ain ez Zahib, or Gold Fountain, and then turning
southward over a high rounded ridge, came suddenly in sight of the green secluded vale in the
midst of which stand in weird solitude the ruins of " Husn Suleiman." The ruin is of unknown
origin and of great antiquity. Like Ba'albek, it is of three styles of architecture, the colossal
Phoenician, the Greek, and that of the Crusaders. There are two quadrangular courts a short
distance from each other and quite distinct. The southern or larger one is a rectangle of four
hundred and fifty feet long by two hundred and eighty feet wide, with a wall formerly forty
feet in height. In the centre of each side is a great portal ten feet wide, twenty feet high,
and eight feet thick. On the soffit of the east and west portals is an immense eagle with
a caduceus in his talons and a retreating Ganymede on either side. The work resembles
that at Ba'albek, but is far less elaborate. We spent six hours in sketching the ruins, and
the engravings from these hasty sketches (in the Second Statement of the American Palestine
Exploration Society) were the first pictures of the ruins published in Europe and America.
The lintel over the eastern gate is a monolith twenty-one feet long, ten feet wide, and five feet
high. It is chastely carved with a cornice of dice and flowers, with a king's head in the centre.
On each end is a winged image in high relief, draped from the waist down, supporting the
upper portion of the cornice on his shoulders, the arms being uplifted. At the bottom of the
cornice is a Greek inscription, which reads somewhat thus : " Theobaitus possessed it. Servants
of his household built it in the 682nd year." The cornice of the western portal has alternate
dice, flowers, and grotesque faces in relief. The lintel of the east gate alone remains perfect;
the western is broken in two pieces, the northern in three, and the southern has fallen.
Inside the northern portal, on a tablet six feet by three, is an inscription in Greek and
Latin. The Latin inscription has been translated by Dr. Ward. It states that the Emperor
Valerianus and his son Gallienus and grandson Saloninus intrusted the province of Asia to
Marcus Aurelius and others, &c, commanding them to see that the distant kingdoms ovei
against the turbulent Parthians remain to them intact. The date is between 253 a.d. an
259 a.d., but the inscription is evidently of far later date than the building, and was no
improbably cut in a tablet from which an older inscription had been effaced.