ACRE, THE KEY OF PALESTINE.
life, our resurrection, and by whom we have been delivered and pardoned." Another coin
dated as above has within the square of the obverse, " One God, one faith, one baptism," with
a small cross in the centre, and on the reverse a declaration of trinity in unity, with the
words, " Glory to God from age to age, Amen," in the segments of the circle.
Christian rule in Palestine came to an end in a.d. 1291, when the Egyptian sultan, Melek-
el-Ashraf Khalil, son of Kalaoun, took the city of 'Akka by storm, after a siege of one
month. He gave orders for the demolition of its walls and churches; but a gateway of one
of its churches was preserved and carried to Cairo (El Kahireh) as a trophy of victory.
El Makrizi, the celebrated Arab historian (refer to page 476, vol. i.) relates the circumstance,
and speaks with enthusiasm of the beauty of this gate, saying, " It is one of the most admirable
that the hands of man have made, for it is of white marble, novel in style, surpassing in
workmanship, its bases and jambs and columns all conjoined (clustered), and the whole wi
conveyed to AI Kahireh." It forms the entrance to the mosque tomb of Melek-en-Nasr
Mohammed, brother and successor (1293—1341) of the above Melek-el-Ashraf Khalil (1290
—1293), in the Suk en Nahhasin, one of the main thoroughfares of Cairo; and it often puzzles
travellers who do not know its history. This gateway is especially interesting, being the
only perfect relic now left of the numerous churches built by the Crusaders at 'Akka.
A traveller in Palestine in the middle of the fourteenth century (Ludolf de Suchem)
describes 'Akka as empty and desolate, but he says that its churches, towers, and palai
were not then so completely destroyed as to have rendered their restoration impossible.
About sixty Saracens were left to guard the place and port. They supported themselves by
the culture of silk and the sale of doves and partridges which swarmed then-. The city \
still in ruins when it passed into the possession of Selim I., the Sultan of Turkey, a.d. 1517,
and it did not begin to revive until the seventeenth century. The only remains of Crusading
work now distinguishable are the subterranean magazines beneath the modern military hospital,
a range of immense vaults under the ramparts, traces of the churches of St. Andrew and
of St. John, and portions of the city wall.
About one mile due east of'Akka stands the "Mount Turon " of the Crusaders, where
Richard Cceur de Lion encamped in 1191, and where, in 1799 Napoleon planted his batteries
in vain. It is an isolated and apparently artificial mount, ninety-six feet in height, completely
dominating the city of 'Akka and overlooking the plain. The Arabic name of this hill is Tell
el Fokhar, " the hill of potter's clay," but it is sometimes called Napoleon's Mount, and is also
known as the Mount of Antikdr, the name given to King Richard in the numerous Arabian
chronicles of the Crusades.
MOUNT CARMEL AND THE RIVER KISHON.
The distance, in a straight line, from the promontory of'Akka to the headland of Carmel
(Ras Kemm, literally " the head of the vineyard ") is eight miles (see page 88). Between these