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Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, Vol. 1
Page 471
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Wilson, Charles William, Sir. Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, Vol. 1 - Page 471. 1881. Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. July 23, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/exotic/item/2694/show/2681.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Wilson, Charles William, Sir. (1881). Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, Vol. 1 - Page 471. Exotic Impressions, Views of Foreign Lands. Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/exotic/item/2694/show/2681

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Wilson, Charles William, Sir, Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, Vol. 1 - Page 471, 1881, Exotic Impressions, Views of Foreign Lands, Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Libraries, accessed July 23, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/exotic/item/2694/show/2681.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, Vol. 1
Creator (LCNAF)
  • Wilson, Charles William, Sir
Publisher D. Appleton and Company
Date 1881
Description Index: Introduction / by the Very Rev. Dean Stanley -- Jerusalem / by Col. Wilson -- Bethlehem and the north of Judaea / by the Rev. Canon Tristram -- The mountains of Judah and Ephraim / by Lieut. Conder -- Samaria and the Plain of Esdraelon / by Miss E. Rogers -- Esdraelon and Nazareth / by the Rev. Canon Tristram -- Galilee, Northern Galilee, Caesarea Philippi and the highlands of Galilee, Mount Hermon and its temples / by the Rev. Dr. S. Merrill -- Damascus / by the Rev. Dr. P. Schaff -- Palmyra, The Wady Barada, Ba'albek / by the Rev. S. Jessup.
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Egypt
  • Palestine
  • Sinai Peninsula
Genre (AAT)
  • books
  • illustrations (layout features)
  • plates (illustrations)
  • maps (documents)
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Location DS107 .W73 v. 1
Original Item URL http://library.uh.edu/record=b1703789~S11
Digital Collection Exotic Impressions: Views of Foreign Lands
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/exotic
Repository Kenneth Franzheim II Rare Books Room, William R. Jenkins Architecture and Art Library, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://info.lib.uh.edu/about/campus-libraries-collections/william-r-jenkins-architecture-art-library
Use and Reproduction No Copyright - United States
Identifier exotic_201304_014
Item Description
Title Page 471
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name exotic_201304_014_492.jpg
Transcript BAALBEK. 471 , t we should have had coins indicating the fact. On a coin of Byblos of the time of \\ crinus there is a picture of a temple without a roof, and a lofty single column rising from the centre high above the walls. There are, it seems, no coins extant of this city under the Antonines, and yet there is strono- evidence in favour of Antoninus Pius (who died a.d. 161) having contributed to the Acropolis one of its stately temples. It is well known, from ancient records, that this peace- lovino* emperor (who, in a.d. 140, rebuilt the rampart from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde, in Scotland) and his coadjutor and adopted son, Marcus Aurelius, were munificent patrons of the cities of Syria. John of Antioch, surnamed Malala, writing in the seventh century, states positively that Antoninus Pius " built at Heliopolis, in Phoenicia of Lebanon, a great temple to Jupiter, one of the wonders of the world ; " and he adds, " he also built at Laodicea of Syria a forum, a great and wonderful piece of architecture, together with a public bath called Antoninas." This allusion to Laodicea is of great importance, for although no Ba'albek coins have as yet been found inscribed with the name of Antoninus Pius, there are coins of Laodicea ad Libanum on which it appears, proving that he was a patron of that city, and thus giving weight to the words of Malala. The ruins of this once-important place have lately been identified at Tell Neby Mindhu, about thirty-five miles north of Ba'albek, on the road to Emesa (Hums). Dr. Robinson thinks it probable that Antoninus Pius built the Lesser Temple and dedicated it to Jupiter Baal {Baal Zeus), and restored or rebuilt the Great Temple. They are evidently works of the same period. He says, " However strange it may appear that no contemporary writer has alluded to this temple of Antonine, yet the general fact of its erection by him accords well with various other circumstances. The elaborate and ornate style of the architecture belongs to a late period. The massive substructions, indeed, wrere probably those of an earlier temple which may have been left unfinished or overthrown by earthquakes." The votive inscriptions, engraved in long slender letters on the pedestals of the portico of the Great Temple, alluded to on page 466, refer, according to De Saulcy, to the gilding of the portico pillars at the expense of a citizen of Ba'albek, probably on the occasion of a visit paid to the temple by the Emperor Caracalla and his mother, the Empress Julia Domna, second wife of the Emperor Septimus Severus. Severus died at York in a.d. 211. Caracalla and his brother Geta succeeded him, but Geta was murdered in a.d. 212. The Emperor Caracalla and his mother, the Empress Julia Domna, journeyed through Egypt and Syria in a.d. 215, and it is natural to conclude that they then visited Ba'albek and that this is the date of the votive tablets inscribed with their names in the portico of the Great Temple. This empress was a native of Syria, and daughter of Bassianus, priest of the temple of the sun at Emesa (Hums), about fifty miles north of Ba'albek. The fact that a daughter of a Syrian priest of sun was chosen as a consort for a Roman emperor, shows how highly Syrian sun-worship s honoured at that time. Heliogabalus was also a priest of the sun at Emesa, and when he became emperor he retained the title " Sacerdos Dei Solis."