C&SAREA PHILIPPI. 353
the time when they were written, which was probably later than the time of the Herods.
P 1 bius however, mentions the name in connection with Antiochus the Great in B.C. 198.
This place has' been known in history by a variety of names. Panias is one of the more
ncient of them, and Banias is the most modern. Herod Philip rebuilt or enlarged it, and
called it Caesarea Philippi (see page 345), the first part in honour of Augustus, and the second
in honour of himself, and likewise to distinguish it from its sister town of Caesarea on the
sea-coast. Caesarea Philippi is the name it bears in the New Testament. Agrippa II.
enlarged it still further, and gave it the name of Neronias, in honour of the Emperor Nero,
by whom large additions had been made to his territory. This was in a.d. 55, and the fact is
attested by coins of Agrippa II. which still exist. The Babylonian Talmud states that Leshem
was an old name of Panias. Panium, a name found in Josephus, refers properly to the cave
which was one of the sources of the Jordan (see page 348). Still other names to be met with
in ancient writings are Kisrin, Caesarea of Panias, and Belinas or Balinas. The last is
important because it is probably the oldest name of the place, and carries us back beyond the
worship of Pan to the time when the altars of Baal stood here, and the rites of a very ancient
religion were practised in and about this famous grotto. The two names Balinas and Panias
could easily be confounded until the latter completely supplanted the former.
Panias had at the beginning of our era a variety of masters. In B.C. 36 it was included
in the grant made by Antony to Cleopatra. After her death it was farmed out to Zenodorus.
Herod the Great next came into possession of it, by whom it was bequeathed to his son Herod
Philip. At his death it reverted to the Emperor Tiberius, and was attached to the Roman
province of Syria. Scarcely four years passed before it was given by Caligula in a.d. 37 to
Herod Agrippa I., who died in a.d. 44. It then came successively under the procurators
Cuspius Fadus, Tiberius Alexander, and Cumanus. At last it was bestowed upon Herod
Agrippa II. in a.d. 53, to whom it belonged during the Jewish War, or from a.d. 66 to 70.
Under Herod Philip, Caesarea Philippi was not only greatly enlarged and beautified, but it
enjoyed, perhaps, its most flourishing period. The character of this prince is in marked contrast
0 that of either of his brothers, Archelaus and Herod Antipas. Philip was a mild ruler, and
i who had the good of his subjects and his province at heart. On his journeys he was
customed to take with him his judges, so that the cases brought before him might be
lispatched at once (" Antiquities," xviii. 4, 6). This fact is so wholly unlike the habit of
1 Pnnces> who court delay, that it is worthy of special notice. He seems furthermore
-en peculiar in other respects. For example, he remained the most of his life
and after he had transformed the humble village Bethsaida into the beautiful and
-'ty Julias, he built there for himself an elegant and costly tomb. In his last years he fell
with Salome and married her. She was the daughter of her husband's half-brother
P an Herodias, and danced at the feast of Herod Antipas when John the Baptist was
, at tlme> A-D- 3J> she was about fourteen years of age, and was married
ong after. As her husband died late in a.d. 33, she must still have been a mere