2o4 PICTURESQUE PALESTINE.
opens into a broad corn vale between rounded chalky hills, and here lie the ruins of
Bethshemesh amid its olives, and on the north Sur'ah, the ancient Zoreah, with the white
shrine of Neby Samat, the traditionary representative of Samson. This part of the valley is
the biblical Vale of Sorek, up which the lowing kine brought the ark In the straight way
through the corn-fields from the sandy downs of Ekron.
The.present ecclesiastical tradition which identifies Wady Beit Hanina with the ancient
Valley of Elah is traceable only as far back as the fourteenth century, and is entirely devoid
of foundation. The true Valley of Elah is identified with the present Wady-es-Sunt, by the
recovery of Socoh on its southern border, and is the next main drain of the country south of
the Wady Beit Hanina. It has its head near Hebron, and runs northward and westward
past Keilah, Hareth, Adullam, and Socoh, debouching into the Philistine plains at Tell-es-
Safy, the probable site of Gath. The site of David's victory over Goliath, now shown
north-west of Jerusalem, was more correctly fixed in the sixth century by the pilgrim
Theodorus between Jerusalem and Eleutheropolis, at a place which he calls Mount Buzana.
The real Valley of Elah (now Wady-es-Sunt) was the theatre of many of David's adventures,
and the hold of Adullam, the copses of Hareth, Keilah on its steep hill, with the white
cliff of Gath guarding the entrance to the fruitful corn vale dotted with dark terebinths, were
all in turn the refuges which he sought when fleeing from the face of Saul.
The village of Kolonia, which has been mentioned above, is also a place celebrated in
Jewish history, although its proximity to the capital forbids us to accept the proposed
identification of the place with the New Testament Emmaus. " There was a place," says
the Mishna, "below Jerusalem called Mozah : thither the people went down and gathered
drooping willow branches, and they came and erected them at the side of the altar with their
tops bending over the altar." The Jewish commentators translate the Hebrew name by the
Latin Colonia; and as the willows may still be found near the stream of Kolonia, while the
ruin of Beit Mizzeh near the village seems to preserve the name of Mozah, there seems
good reason to suppose that the modern fashion of making a summer day's excursion from
the capital to the little restaurant in Wady Beit Hanina is a survival of the old Hebrew
custom of coming down to Kolonia for the willow branches used during the Feast of the
Tabernacles, on the 13th of Tizri, and the 21st of the same month, or in the middle of
September. It was probably at Mozah also that the daughters of Jerusalem danced in the
vineyards on the same festal occasion, when they sang an invitation to the youthful spectators,
the words of which have come down to us at the present day : " Behold, O young man, whom
wilt thou choose : look not for beauty, but for birth; favour is deceitful, beauty is vain, but she
that feareth the Lord, she shall be praised."
'Ain Karim, the ancient Carem of Judah, is a site now consecrated by numerous ecclesiastical traditions. It contains a Latin monastery founded by the Marquis de Nointel, the
ambassador of Louis XIV. of France, and a church dedicated to St. John the Baptist (see
page 209), with a white dome, which forms a conspicuous object in the distance, rising beside