36 PICTURESQUE PALESTINE.
especially to see all his family newly shod for a fete day. In the same neighbourhood the
cotton-cleaners are found, one of whom, a Jew, is represented on page 44, busy at Work
Cotton pods are brought to him in a sack. After weighing them, he separates the husks and
seeds from the cotton with his bow-string, which he beats vigorously with his mallet. On a
tray, mounted on a low stool, the seeds and pods may be seen ; these will be weighed with
the cotton in the presence of the owner when the task is completed. When there is sufficient
space a second bow is used, and thus a double spring is obtained. The smaller bow is
attached to a beam overhead, and to this is suspended a large harp-shaped bow, called a
mandaf, the long string of which on being beaten into the cotton quickly converts it into
fleecy clouds. The labour of holding the bow is avoided by thus suspending it, and the
work is accomplished with surprising rapidity.
Cotton-cleaners are frequently employed in private houses to purify and lighten mattresses and divan cushions by the same process.
In every district a grocer's shop may be found, and on page 32 a typical one may be
seen. The grocer in his striped gown and coloured turban sits on his shop-board quietly
smoking, for it is nearly midday, and there is not much business to attend to. His stock
consists of baskets of Egyptian rice and rice from the Jordan, a good supply of loaf sugar
and coffee, dried fruits, pistachio nuts, walnuts, olives, salt, pepper, and all kinds of spices.
A laden camel is just coming into the picture, making a growling noise and ringing his bells.
The riofht foot of the rider alone is visible. In advance of the camel comes a water-carrier
from Siloam, with a patched goatskin filled with water from the Bir Eyub (Job's Well). He
rattles his brass cups, and cries out in a shrill voice, " May God compassionate me!" Two
peasant women with dishevelled hair and yellow kerchiefs bound round their stiff red cloth
caps are resting near the shop. They have rings in their noses and on their fingers, but their
feet are bare. Peasant women of Judaea are not generally attractive in appearance. The
features of the townspeople are much more refined, and there are many women and girls,
both Christian and Moslem, in Jerusalem whose coloured muslin veils hide really pretty faces.
Jewesses do not veil themselves, but the younger and prettier among them are kept very
much out of sight.
From David Street a turning towards the north, called Christian Street, leads to the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and here there are a few European shops, kept by Maltese,
Italians, and Germans, in the midst of the truly Oriental barbers, pipe-makers, bakers' shops,
and cafes. A good example of one of the less important street cafes is shown on page 33.
All that is absolutely necessary is a nook in which a fire can be made for the preparation of
pipes and coffee, a supply of coffee cups, narghilehs, and long pipes, and a few rush seats; but
the proprietor adds greatly to the attractions of his establishment if he can supply a board
for the game called dameh, at which a Bedouin and a peasant are represented playing in
the illustration. In the evening a story-teller or a singer may generally be found here
entertaining a group of smokers.