WITH, THE SEVEN CHURCHES OF ASIA MINOR. 53
Youm Bournou, with a colonnade as regular as that at Staffa in Scotland, or the Giants'
Causeway in Ireland. If, as the Vulcanists say, these are undoubtedly the productions
of fire, here are still the proofs of that mighty rupture that formed the Bosphorus.
From the awful convulsions connected with it, this entrance to the Bosphorus was
called by the Greeks lepov, or " the Sacred;" it is now called by the Turks, Boghaz.
Its present aspect presents a singular and beautiful prospect. The blue and limpid
Bosphorus, now expanding into bays, and now cooped between promontories, here suddenly expands into an apparently interminable ocean. The promontories which swell
out are clothed with a bright and permanent verdure, covered with villages, fortresses,
and beacons, whose white walls and battlemented towers crown them with their turreted
diadems, and harmonize well with the bright tints of green and blue from sea and land.
These are called phanaraki, from phanar, the Greek for light-house, and kin, the
Turkish for town. On the most conspicuous eminence is seen a memorial of the
enterprising spirit of the Genoese, a dilapidated castle, still in tolerable preservation,
which they erected at one end of the Bosphorus, when they built the town of Galata
at the other. Over the entrance, and on other parts of the front, are perfect mono-
grammal inscriptions, which evidently belong to the Greeks of the Lower Empire,
whoever were the architects of the edifice.
All parts of these shores command delightful views, and are refreshed by the invigorating breeze which is wafted through the Boghaz from the Euxine, and ventilates this
region in the greatest heats of a sultry summer. The thermometer sometimes stands
here ten degrees lower than at Pera; and the panting inhabitant of the city escapes with
delight, to breathe the bracing air of this cool and refreshing vicinity. The Frank ambassadors, instead of congregating in summer at Belgrade, as in the time of Lady M. W.
Montague, have with more taste and judgment fixed their residence here; and Buykderc
is filled with their summer palaces. From this village the high land stretches away in
a direction across the Bosphorus, and presents a front to the opening of the Euxine.
Amidst these lovely undulating grounds, so varied in form as to command an extensive
prospect, while the observer feels almost unseen, parties of pleasure are continually
assembled. No true mussulman is unconscious of nature's charms, on the contrary,
his highest enjoyment is in the contemplation of a solemn, silent, and wide-spread
landscape. It is this that attracts such numbers to the agreeable heights of Buykdere,
and pleads an apology for the presence of the old Seraskier and his suite, who are
represented as partaking of the rural festivities of this happy, healthy spot