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The Spoonbill, Vol. 6, No. 8, December 1957
Image 7
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The Spoonbill, Vol. 6, No. 8, December 1957 - Image 7. December 1957. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 30, 2021. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/3318/show/3308.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(December 1957). The Spoonbill, Vol. 6, No. 8, December 1957 - Image 7. Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/3318/show/3308

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Spoonbill, Vol. 6, No. 8, December 1957 - Image 7, December 1957, Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 30, 2021, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/3318/show/3308.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Compound Item Description
Title The Spoonbill, Vol. 6, No. 8, December 1957
Contributor (Local)
  • Aiken, Carl H., III
Publisher Outdoor Nature Club
Date December 1957
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Ornithology
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • newsletters
  • periodicals
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Location ID 2007-023, Box 9, Folder 7
ArchivesSpace URI /repositories/2/archival_objects/9842
Original Collection Outdoor Nature Club Records
Digital Collection Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections/
Use and Reproduction No Copyright - United States
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 7
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2007_023_b009_f007_012_007.jpg
Transcript Page 4 ~w. 136 Santa Ana, Texas is; 425 20 8 "TS~ 134 Tbmales Bay, Calf, 33,427 10 4 ~TT~ —133—' Houston, Texas 23,832 35 9 SPECIES WITH HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL COUNTS IN NATION HOUSTON COUNT - 1956 Black Tern (1) (Reported on no other~u7s„ count J Loggerhead Shrike (364) (3,645 on 205 U,S, counts) Lincoln's Sparrow (99) (382 on 44 U.S. counts) .»*«******» * * * * «****» THE IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER -(James T. Tanner) From u'Our Endangered Wildlife", a publieation of the National Wildlife Federation. The Ivory-billed Woodpecker was never a common bird, but it has long been famous. Its large size and Imposing appearance captured the imagination of both Indians and early naturalists. It is the largest woodpecker in North America, larger than a crow. Its shining black and white plumage, scarlet crest in the male, and large white bill combine with Its vigorous and graceful actions and far-carrying voice to impress any observer. It differs from its relative, the Pileated Woodpecker, In being larger, showing more white in Its plumage, especially on the back when perched, and the voice sounding like a nasal tin trumpet. Ivory-billed Woodpeckers originally lived in the swamps of the southern states. From southeastern North Carolina to eastern Texas they inhabited the large river swamps along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, living in forests of oak, gum, and other hardwoods and cypress. In the Mississippi bottomlands they extended northward at least to the mouth of the Ohio, preferring the first bottom forest of sweet gum, oaks and ash. Throughout Florida they Inhabited cypress swamps, frequently moving into the surrounding pine woods for feeding. Ivory-billed Woodpeckers' habitats are also the favored homes of other kinds of woodpeckers, whieh are more abundant in these forested swamps than in upland forests and which always have been more abundant than Ivory- bills. To Illustrate this a tract of 6 square miles can be cited which supported one pair of Ivory-bills in addition to an estimated 36 pairs of Pileated and 126 pairs of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. Ivory-bills feed upon wood-boring insects, particularly those kinds that live in the Inner bark and between the bark and sapwood of trees or limbs not too long dead. The bark in this stage is still hard and tight, but the big woodpeckers hack and seale it loose by powerful side blows with their bills. This manner of feeding leaves characteristic signs—bare and barkless areas on dead limbs and trunks of trees too sound to be attacked In the same way by lesser woodpeckers. The prefered Insect foods are often very abundant, but they are present for a relatively short time, disappearing when the bark loosens in the process of decay. Thus the Ivory-bills' food Is likely to be irregularly distributed, varying from place to place and from time to time. To find an adequate supply they range farther and require more area than do other woodpeckers. Ivory-bills nest in cavities they dig in trees. From one to four eggs, two being usual, are laid in early spring. Both parents incubate the eggs and care for the young. One brood is raised each year. Ivory-bills began to disappear from their original range as soon as loggers invaded the southern swamps. In several Instances the disappearance of the woodpeckers coincided with the cutting of the forests. The real cause was probably the indirect destruction of their food supply, •for the young trees left in a cut-over forest provided much less food for woodpeckers than do the mature trees of a virgin or old forest. After such a forest has been out, the different kinds of woodpeckers may maintain their status for about two years, then they decrease markedly in numbers. The Ivory-bills, with their specific food requirements, were the first to go, and the ones which were lost permanently from the cut-over swamps. By 1885 the birds had disappeared from the northern part of their original range. The greatest decrease occurred between 1885 and 1900 when the southern logging industry grew most rapidly. By 1915 the species was