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The Spoonbill, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 1981
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The Spoonbill, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 1981 - Image 8. June 1981. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. July 17, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/147/show/136.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(June 1981). The Spoonbill, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 1981 - Image 8. Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/147/show/136

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Spoonbill, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 1981 - Image 8, June 1981, Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed July 17, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/147/show/136.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title The Spoonbill, Vol. 30, No. 2, June 1981
Alternative Title The Spoonbill, Vol. XXX, No. 2, June 1981
Contributor (Local)
  • Pinkston, Randy
Publisher Outdoor Nature Club
Date June 1981
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Ornithology
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • newsletters
  • periodicals
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Location ID 2007-023, Box 11, Folder 10
ArchivesSpace URI /repositories/2/archival_objects/9866
Original Collection Outdoor Nature Club Records
Digital Collection Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections/
Use and Reproduction Rights Undetermined
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 8
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2007_023_b011_f010_006_008.jpg
Transcript page 8 the book contains selected articles covering topics from philosophical reflections on birds to freeway birding and big sits. It will be placed in the OG library. Your editor compiled a set of notes on gull identification from the program presented by Bret Whitney at the January 1981 OG meeting (see THE SPOONBILL, April 1981). An amendment is necessary at the bottom of page 3 ("Plumage Sequences"). Large gulls acquire full a- dult plumage in their 4th winter, i.e. when they are just older than 3 years. Similarly, medium gulls become adult at just over 2 years, , and small gulls at just over 1 year. - 3 .,; * The April issue of this newsletter ended with a question concerning bird distributions. More specifically, we asked you to try and name the seven extant species which are endemic to the U.S. Two months have passed and the correct answers are as follows 1 Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Carolina Chickadee, Brown-headed Nuthatch, and Bachman's Sparrow (all southeastern U.S.)s Brown-capped Rosy Finch (central and northern Rockies)s Yellow-billed Magpie (California)! Lesser Prairie Chicken (central prairie states). THE SILENT KILLERS; DISEASES OF BIRDS Part 51 AVIAN TUBERCULOSIS by B. C. Robison, D.V.I Every historical era, it seems, is afflicted at one time or another with a disease that is both unique to the times and that is looked upon with an especial sense of dread. In biblical times, it was leprosy! the Middle Ages had the Black Death: the twentieth century might well be remembered as tfie Age of the Coronary Occlusion; and in the nineteenth century it was tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a chronic debilitating disease found in numerous species of animalsi it is caused by three species of the micro-organism Mycobacterium, each of which affects a particular hosts man and subhuman primates (M. tuberculosis), cattle (M. bovis), and birds (M. avium). Intensive eradication efforts have eliminated bovine TB (formerly a source of human infection, in pre-Pasteurization days, through contaminated milk), but chicken TB (turkeys are resistant) still persists to the economic detriment of the poultry industry. Affected birds are unthrifty and unfit for use as food, and produce fewer eggsi they are also a source of infection in sheep and especially swine, and, in rare cases, humans. Among wild birds, TB is uncommon under ordinary open field conditions! among zoo birds, however, it is more common due to the unnatural conditions of confinement. Certain gregarious species, such as starlings, have shown to be an important factor in the dissemination of avian TB. In 1963, an Indiana pig farm had an outbreak of TB that was shown to be caused by the avian agentj the farm had also been heavily populated with roosting starlings, and 125 of these birds were subsequently collected and examined. Six percent were found to have TB lesions in the liver, spleen, and intestines. The nature of these lesions, interestingly enough, suggested that this species of bird is relatively resistant to the mycobacteria. One-half mile away, a poultry farm was hit with a TB outbreak about a month earlier, and it, too, had many starlings on the premises. It was demonstrated that the starlings contracted TB at the poultry farm, and then transferred it to the swine operation. Such epidemiologic findings hardly enhance the reputation of this nuisance bird. ■■'■liit? . The clinical symptoms of avian TB are non-specific. Affected birds are lethargic, underweight, and suffer pectoral muscle atrophy and loss of color in the comb and wattles. Often a tuberculous bird will hop around with a jerky, one-sided lameness because of infection in the bone marrow of the leg. Occasionally a wing" will droop due to tuberculous infiltration of the humeral-scapulqcoracoid joint (dat means de shoulder). Paralysis may occur in advanced cases. Diarrhea results from infection along the intestinal tract, further aggravating