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The Spoonbill, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 1994
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The Spoonbill, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 1994 - Image 2. October 1994. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. November 13, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/115/show/106.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

(October 1994). The Spoonbill, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 1994 - Image 2. Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/115/show/106

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

The Spoonbill, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 1994 - Image 2, October 1994, Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters, Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries, accessed November 13, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023/item/115/show/106.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title The Spoonbill, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 1994
Contributor (Local)
  • Mueller Boyce, Judith
Publisher Outdoor Nature Club
Date October 1994
Subject.Topical (LCSH)
  • Ornithology
Subject.Geographic (TGN)
  • Houston, Texas
Genre (AAT)
  • newsletters
  • periodicals
Language English
Type (DCMI)
  • Text
Original Item Location ID 2007-023, Box 12, Folder 15
ArchivesSpace URI /repositories/2/archival_objects/9879
Original Collection Outdoor Nature Club Records
Digital Collection Outdoor Nature Club Newsletters
Digital Collection URL http://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/2007_023
Repository Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
Repository URL http://libraries.uh.edu/branches/special-collections/
Use and Reproduction In Copyright
File Name index.cpd
Item Description
Title Image 2
Format (IMT)
  • image/jpeg
File Name uhlib_2007_023_b012_f015_009_002.jpg
Transcript 1973 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 YEAR Figure I. Breeding Pairs of Least Terns in Galveston Bay and Texas 350 r 19 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 YEAR Figure 2. Average Number of Breeding Pairs per Colony in Galveston Bay 19 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 B9 YEAR Figure 3. Number of Least Tem Colonies in Galveston Bay 91 Bolivar Roads hosted 100 pairs of Least Terns and 125 pairs of Black Skimmers in 1974 but little activity since. Human disturbance from adjacent Apffel Park is thought to be the primary disturbance at this popular bathing and fishing spot. The innate behavior of these terns may also limit their nest sites. Most terns are extremely gregarious nesters. If two birds, each sitting in their nest scrape, are unable to reach one another with their bills, they are far enough apart to co-exist. This strategy of densely packed nests can overwhelm the capacity of predators to consume eggs or chicks, thus increasing the probability that any given pair of birds will successfully raise one or more young. Least terns appear to use a different strategy. They do nest together in loose colonies, thus retaining the ability of the group to detect, and cooperatively deter, predators. But they like lots of space between nests, and their colonies are less likely to attract predators. They also prefer open beaches with sparse or no vegetation, increasing their ability to detect an approaching predator. Least Terns are particular about the company they keep, preferring to nest alone or with Black Skimmers, but never with Royal or Caspian Terns. Least Terns continually test their environment. They have nested at 45 different Galveston Bay sites in the past 20 years, but 16 sites were used only once, 9 only twice, and 4 only three times. Since 1988 Least Terns have attempted to nest on flat, gravelled roof tops, indicating their desperation for nest sites. They are persistent nesters if provided with protected nest areas. At Bolivar Flats, the elimination of beach driving has allowed Least Terns to nest on the beach. In 1993, one three occasions high tides completely wiped out their nests within a roped-off area that diverts pedestrians. Each time, the birds laid new eggs and eventually succeeded in raising young late in the summer. At San Luis Pass, roping off the nest area to detour vehicular traffic enabled Least Terns and skimmers to successfully renest after high tide losses. Drivers and strollers have demonstrated their willingness to share the beach when signs request their cooperation. Birds and beachgoers can, indeed, share the beach and mutually benefit. Dr. McFarlane is a consulting ecologist and represents Galveston Bay Foundation as chair of the Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee of the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. We thank Dr. McFarlane and Galveston Bay Foundation (GBF) for permission to reprint this article, which originally was published in GBF Soundings, Summer 1994. The Spoonbill, October 1994 Page 2