the two cycles of legends to explain: 1) the manner
in which de Rais was turned into "Bluebeard," and
2) the true sources of Perrault's tale, native
folklore originating in Brittany, the Vendee and
the Loire valley.
RICHARD BERCHAN, University of Utah, "How the Muses
Came to the Rescue of Paul Claudel."
Paul Claudel's ode Les Muses is a 642-line poem
written at the turn of the century. This paper
aims to reveal it as a battleground for a major
conflict between the poet's religious and poetic
vocations. Following a mystical experience in
December, 1886, which he called his "conversion,"
Claudel was tormented by the need to go to the
limit of this summons by becoming a priest. On the
other hand, he was also a great poet and had an
overpowering need to let the poet in him survive.
He could not, he felt, be both poet and priest,
and the battle between these two vocations is
located, though not explicitly, within the text of
CHILDHOOD AND FANTASY
CHAIR: Richard Kopley, Walden School, New York City.
MARK BERNHEIM, Miami University, "The Five Hundred
Reasons of Isaac Singer.
Isaac Singer's children's literature represents an
important part of his entire literary imagination,
and stems to a large degree from similar sources.
Singer himself has emphasized the childlike
qualities of much of his adult fiction, and lines
between the two genres are at times difficult to
determine. Much material exists similarly in
both, and we will note the tendencies which unite
his writing for children and adults along parallel
insights. Specific stories will be examined to
reveal Singer's interest in the naive imagination.
MARY E. SHANER, Massachusetts University - Boston
Harbor, "The Matter of Britain in Contemporary
Arthurian legend is a virtual mother lode of adult
fantasy for the English-speaking world; witness the
range of adult Arthurian fantasies from The Faerie
Queen to The Once and Future King. Curiously,
however, the Matter of Britain has not been drawn
on so extensively in modern children's fantasies
nor even so successfully. By examining the use of
Arthurian materials in three fantasies for
children, The Weathermonger by Peter Dickinson
The Earthfasts by William Mayne, and Silver on the
Tree by Susan Cooper, one can draw some
conclusions about how such material best functions
in fantasy writing for children, and also about
the value of Arthurian materials in books for the
OF TIME AND FUTURE HISTORY
CHAIR: Justin Leiber, University of Houston.
JAMES GARSON, University of Houston, "How is Time
Many accounts of time travel in science fiction
are inconsistent. Following the logic of a story,
for example, you can show that the same thing both
did and did not happen. However, many other
stories present consistent pictures of time travel.
In this paper, I will present three ways of
working out a consistent story about time travel,
resolving the Grandfather Paradox (what happens if
I go back and kill my grandfather?) to illustrate
how potential inconsistencies can be avoided in
each of the three ways. These models of time
travel, however, put strains on such basic
concepts as the immutability of the past, our
freedom to make choices, and even the nature of
time travel itself. Each model sets up strains in
different places, but some distort our concepts so
much that I wonder whether they really count as
time travel after all.
CRAIG WALLACE BARROW, University
"Pychohistory and the Utopias
The primary action developed in Asimov's
Foundation series is psychological, but it is the
evolving psychology of cultures rather than of
individuals, chiefly dealing with political and
economic power. This paper analyzes the Utopian
sentiments within this psychological evolution.
JUSTIN LEIBER, University of Houston, "The I's Mind,
an Attempt to Indistinguish Literature, Philosophy,
These days, we are prone to scepticism about
literature's traditional role of conveying truths
about the universe and our place in it. Our
mistrust of literature would seem to stem from 1)
Whorfian, structural-linguistics views about human
language, 2) laboratory-experimental and
behaviorist views about ^'objective truth," 3) a
background empiricist view about non-experimental
studies such as mathematics. But all of these
views now seem clearly discredited. With the fall
of these views, the possibility that literature
should hold out important truth seems once again
established and better than before. This view
might be illustrated by considering the recent
Hofstadter-Dennett book, The Mind's I.
R. LANCE FACTOR, Knox College, Illinois. "The Time
Travel Paradox and Its Lesson."
In backtracking time travel stories it is possible
for characters to change the past. In a
paradoxical backtracking story there is no
difference between the possible and the
impossible: anything can happen. More interesting
is consistent backtracking of which there are two
kinds: (1) the Heinlein-Lewis restricted plot with
one or more closed causal loops where personhood
is a matter of sequential time; (2) the Fritz
Leiber extra-dimensionality sort in which memory
constitutes personality and agencies operate
beyond the causal loops of ordinary time. The
forms exemplify different views about determinism,
REVISITING POSSIBLE WORLDS: RESOURCE
MATERIALS IN FANTASTIC LITERATURE