Keyword
in
Collection
Date
to
Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956
File 033
Citation
MLA
APA
Chicago/Turabian
Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 033. 1956-03. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 15, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/942.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-03). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 033. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/942

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 033, 1956-03, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 15, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/942.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

URL
Embed Image
Compound Item Description
Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date March 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 033
Transcript SHANGHAI CONSPIRACY it. Because of the presumption of Klausen's change of heart, and his free confession, the Japanese court gave him only life imprisonment. OzAki had never really feared the consequences of his treason. If he were discovered, he was prepared to die. Actually, he did not find this so simple. Affection for his family, who never suspected this treason, and loyalty to the innocent friends whom lie had involved, weighed heavily upon him. After full and unhurried investigation the various members of the Sorge ring were brought to trial, separately, in camera. Only the briefest mention of the case was released to the press in May, 1942. In this release the Japanese Intelligence deliberately connected the accused with the Comintern although they had established that the ring worked for the Red Army. There was no point in telling the Russians all they knew. Sentences were handed down by the Tokyo District Court in September, 1943. Both Sorge and Ozaki appealed to the Supreme Court. Both claimed that they had not done anything illegal. Their theory of defense was that they had not used force to acquire their secrets and that they had passed to Moscow only information normally available to any discerning person. The Supreme Court was not impressed by this logic. Sorge's appeal was dismissed in January, and Ozaki's in April, 1944. It is an interesting and perhaps surprising commentary on the quality of Japanese civil justice to note that in the midst of a bitter war, dangerous spies were given the benefit of every protection offered by Japanese law. It also seems surprising that of the nearly twenty guilty men and women only two were sentenced to death, although under Japanese law every one of them had incurred the death penalty. [Of 17 convicted prisoners, we list what happened to six, as follows:] Sorge, Richard Ozaki, Hozumi Voukelitch, Branko de Miyagi, Yotoko Klausen, Max Kitabayasha, Tomo Death Death Hanged Hanged Died Life No Sentence Died Life Released 5 Years Nov. 7, 1944 Nov. 7, 1944 Jan. 13, 1945 Aug. 2, 1945 Oct. 9, 1945 Unknown date Released The Sorge case is much more than an interesting spy story. Like the Canadian espionage case it presents detailed information on methods of Soviet espionage, summarized [in part] as follows: Communist parties and known Communist cardholders are not used for high-level, highly sensitive Soviet espionage. True, they are used as channels, but they are not included in the important net work. They are too vulnerable. Communist sympathizers or fellow-travellers on the other hand, are the persons recruited for basic espionage. I hey have loyalty and devotion to the Soviet Union, through their devotion to the abstract cause of Marxian communism, a sort of indued hypnosis which is beyond price. Agnes Smedley, American author, used by Sorge extensively in espionage nets in China. This was inconsistent since Sorge always contended that women were valueless in espionage work. Later, in 1949, Smedley became the "front woman" in the effort of the American Communist party to discredit MacArthur. WIDI WOR1 " PHOTO I'vi is Fori \i Ni March, 1956 Study groups of economic, social, and Marxian subjects are common sources of recruits both for the Communist party and for active Soviet espionage. A very useful cover consists of a research institute devoted to some problem of general interest — the typical "front" organization. Persons not members of the Communist party, merely sympathetic to it through reading and participating in study groups, show an extraordinary willingness to work for the Soviet Union. They are ready to betray their country through espionage with very little urging. They do not seem to care what the channel of command or information may be, so long as it relates to Communist activity in general. There is a very sharp dividing line between Soviet intelligence agencies, and there is little if any intercourse between members of different agencies. For example, after Ozaki started working for Sorge in Japan he was forbidden to have further communications with Agnes Smedley who was running a Soviet intelligence agency in Peiping. Yet previously the three had worked closely together in Shanghai in complete social harmony. As another example, Sorge was forbidden to communicate with Guenther Stein after Stein left Japan in 19.38, and apparently did not look him up when thev were both in Hong Kong in 1939. There is some doubt about this. Sorge's memoirs were written at a time when he had hopes to escape and he was not likely to expose his associates or reveal too many details. Stein appeared in the United States, obviously a link with the I.P.R. until the War Department release of a part of the Sorge files, drove him out. He certainly was in touch with Smedley. Soviet Russians are rarely used as field agents: they are too likely to be under surveillance. Only after necessity drove him to it, did Sorge deal with a representative of the Soviet Embassy. The American and Canadian experience is slightly different: The Russian Embassies controlled and directed espionage nets and Embassy personnel was very active; Judith Koplon was in contact with a UN or Consular official, peddling FBI records. The best agent is a person who not only has "cover" but is a bona fide expert on a general subject, preferably Page 31
File Name uhlib_1352973_v005_n003_033.jpg