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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 022. 1956-03. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. September 19, 2019. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/931.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1956-03). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 022. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/931

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956 - File 022, 1956-03, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed September 19, 2019, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/979/show/931.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date March 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 022
Transcript "Father X" and "Father Y" tell of experiences under what they charge was a Soviet campaign to eliminate the Catholic clergy in the Ukraine. They wore masks to prevent Communists' reprisals against their families. desired regime reaction (plus desired cut-down of cost) led Free Europe Press to consider recasting its original conception — that of mailing a regular leaflet publication to addresses behind the Iron Curtain — into the conception of covering the country with such leaflets, carried by balloons. Transitional steps were worked out by a combination of American and exile imagination and ingenuity. balloons were chosen as delivery vehicles for printed word materials because, and only because, there was no other available way to do the job effectively. Three types are used to take advantage of the prevailing West- to-East winds. Tlie first is neoprene rubber, four and a half feet when inflated with hydrogen, and carrying two to three pounds of leaflets. It bursts at 25-30,000 feet and scatters its cargo below. The second type is made of polyethylene plastic, is ten feet square when inflated, and leaks instead of exploding, thus floating its cargo to the ground. The third type is a larger plastic vehicle with an ingenious release device. A tipping bucket with 500 to 1,000 leaflets is suspended from the balloon and kept in balance by the weight of a small drv ice container. When the dry ice evaporates, the bucket is tipped and spills its load. All of the balloons arc directed on their targets with accuracy by measuring the supply of hydrogen, the amount of hydrogen leak, and the quantity of dry ice, in combination with careful calculation of meteorological data. As a result, Operation VETO into Czechoslovakia was launched on April 29, 1954. and still continues. Operation FOCUS into Hungary was launched on October 1, 1954, and still continues. These operations represent joint planning and execution by Radio Free Europe and Free Europe Press acting in harmony as an instrument of political warfare. . . . Both [VETO and FOCUS] benefit Page 20 from continuous coordination of the resources of Radio Free Europe and Free Europe Press in New York and Munich; FEP research and analysis. RFE policy advisors and their staffs, FEP and RFE leaflet and script-writers, and RFE programming and audience analysis. This coordination results in effective exploitation of the complementary qualities of radio broadcasts and balloon-borne leaflets: the leaflets' ability to present basic- ideas and themes in the concrete form most conducive to a single, nationwide interpretation; the broadcasts' ability continuously to develop these themes in the light of events fresh in the peoples' minds. The printed word represents a significant addition to communication with the people behind the Iron Curtain. Light-weight magazines and leaflets, posters and small newspapers are distributed in millions of copies by balloons, and bring the authority ol the printed word to those who are cut off, except for radio, from almost all other tangible links with the West. These publications can take advantage of the authenticity of photographs, the satirical impact of cartoons, and the artistic effects of color and design. Most important, they can communicate complicated themes accurately and concisely, and thev can be retained for rereading and reflection. The concept for both operations grew out of a careful study of the New Course situations in Czechoslovakia and Hungary as revealed by regime policy statements, complaints, admissions of failure and refugee reports. Analysis indicated that the Czechoslovak and Hungarian peoples, in their reaction to the concessionary and re- organizational aspects of the New Course, were taking the offensive against a party rendered hesitant by the Moscow power-struggle and against bureaucracies wavering before their own public confessions of failure. Apparently, in the minds of the people, initiative was no longer solely in Communist hands. It could be in the hands of others. The opportunity was seized. Free Europe Committee set out to encourage the spirit of confidence within the captive countries and. 1>> so doing, to achieve two corollary aims: first, to broaden the peoples understanding of freedom; second, to prevent or delay achievement of the ultimate objective of the New Course — a placated industrial and agricultural labor force working to increase the captive peoples' contribution to the Soviet economic (and therefore military) potential. To encourage the people's initiative it was essential to make them conscious of their united power and purpose without directly stimulating either a'.1. identifiable "resistance organization or dangerous, ill-considered acts. It was accordingly necessary to emphasize mass anonymity and individual effort. The first requirement (mass anonymity) was met by the conccp1 of the "People's Opposition" in Czech' oslovakia, the "National Opposition Movement — NEM" in Hungary j whose "members" are simply l" Czechs, Slovaks or Hungarians wb« oppose their regimes as best thev ca" RFE and FEP thus become the "opp"' sition radio and press." In the all-out campaign during the past year to induce i-nii- »res to redefect to their homelands, Soviet Itussia and each of her satellites issued some form of amnesty to their former citizens. In Czechoslovakia, however, the regime explicitly excludes from its amnesty the members of the Council of Free Czechoslo- vakia. the Slovak National Coun- eil, and the leading Czechoslovak employees of the Voire of America and Radio Fret- Europe- Even so, at least one such rede- feelor was received with open arms: the Czech Vladimir Kucera, who hail heen associated with Radio Free F.uropc. Itadio Prague made extensive use of Kueera's alleged experiences. While in the free world, Kucera had voluntarily made :l tape recording to the effect that if he wit I' ever to return to Czechoslovakia and denounce liadio F'ree F'.tirope. his statements should he discounted- When Itadio Free F'urope broadcast this record to Czechoslovakia. Kin-era replied that he had heen drunk when he made the recording! (From News From Rehind the lr<" Curtain, October, 19551 Facts F News, March i o^b,
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