A critical view of Radio Free Europe by Jiri Brada appears on page 43.
MUCH of the information used
in Radio Free Europe is obtained by correspondents who
interview newly-arrived refugees from
the Iron Curtain countries, from Stockholm and Hamburg down to Istanbul.
Something of interest is learned from
all of these — about conditions in their
towns and villages, popular sentiment
towards the Communist rulers, radio
listening, attitudes on democracy and
the American people. A special kind
of refugee is the "defector," the Communist party or regime official, who
has turned from the fraudulent nature
of the Communist creed, escaped to
the West, and offered his services to
official or private organizations which
might in turn help to enlighten his
Many outstanding defectors, such
as Khokhlov and Petrov, have made
broadcasts over Radio Free Europe.
Important information was gained
also from a group of sailors who left
Polish Communist ships at Formosa
where, following arrangements made
by RFE, they were interviewed by
emissaries from the Polish Immigration Committee of New York.
Perhaps the most far-reaching and
enlightening information was that received from a recent defector, Lt.-Col.
Josef Swiatlo, of the Polish Ministry
of Security Police. His testimony was
remarkable both in broad content and
in detail. His revelations concerning
personalities high in the Polish government, their official and personal
conduct, were so voluminous, so exact,
and so varied that they furnished
material for an all-out campaign to
Poland, in which almost half of 140
broadcasts were made up of direct
testimony broadcast by Swiatlo himself.
Last month Facts Forum News began
a presentation of the aims of Radio
Free Europe, how it works, and the
scope of its effectiveness, taken
from RFE records and publications.
Further results of its program are
given in this concluding installment.
1 he defection of Josef Swiatlo, former Deputy Director of "Department
Ten" of Poland's Security Ministry,
was publicly announced on September 28, 1954. On the same day, Radio
Free Europe's "Voice of Free Poland"
initiated a series of programs in which
Swiatlo personally exposed the activities, intrigues, and corruption of
Polish regime officials. Since "Department Ten" of the Security Ministry is
responsible for the surveillance of
Communist party members in Poland,
Swiatlo had intimate knowledge of
the lives of all important regime and
secret police officials.
Radio Free Europe was able to put
Swiatlo on the air with his exposes on
the day his defection was announced
by the use of programs that were
tape-recorded before the news of his
defection broke. It took the Polish
regime almost a month from the time
of RFE's first Swiatlo program to face
the issue publicly. On October 25, the
regime announced that Swiatlo was
an "American agent and provocateur
. . . broadcasting nonsensical and vile
lies, calumnies and falsehoods over
The first drastic regime reaction to
Josef Swiatlo, top ranking Polish security °*' .
who defected to the West, furnished much v0.;
able information concerning officals behind
Iron Curtain to Radio Free Europe.
the Swiatlo programs within Pol**
was the removal of General Stanis'*
Radkiewicz (announced by the *
gime on December 7, 1954) as MJ
ister of Security. Radkiewicz wa
of the principal figures in the Swi' ;
revelations. The conservative Brjj
publication, Time <Lr Tide, in an art1'.].
entitled "The End of the Po"|
'Heria'" published on January I
What made his (Radkiewicz ) fall fgi
»* ii.u inane ins \ lUUMivi^ j I."' —. .(
unite even more interesting was the t;11
that it came about, not as a results
interna] conflicts, hut through outs'*]
interference. Tlie immediate cause 1
his downfall was, in fact, a series
broadcasts beamed into Poland
Radio free Europe in Munich. *J
Secrets which had been known to tb*3
or four persons were broadcast I" '!'.,;
lions. . . . It was perhaps the Kr'', /„;
Single victory ever to he reennUa...
broadcasting to Iron Curtain count'*
Even before the Radkiewicz l''\
i high placed Polish Conn''",'
West stated co""|.
official in the
tially that RFE
proved "the biggest and most st"? ^
lul propaganda of its type pi"1'1.'
by America" since the USSR $M
control of Poland. This same <*5
said that "the whole of Warsa^ j
terribly disturbed" by the broad y
which "were creating a precip'^j
tween the regime and the *
In January, 1955, the regimc
need the arrest of three' ' t
secret police officials: General '|(jt|
kowski. Deputy Minister of Sec
Facts Forum News, March,