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Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1956
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1956 - File 069. 1956-02. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. June 3, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/909/show/908.

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Facts Forum. (1956-02). Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1956 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/909/show/908

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1956 - File 069, 1956-02, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed June 3, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/909/show/908.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1956
Alternate Title Facts Forum News, Vol. V, No. 2, February 1956
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date February 1956
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 5 1956; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript MS IEL-TV ADM. BEN MOREELL I ippines ' ( IN THIS ISSUE • • • Of Bread and Circuses By Admiral Ben Mortell Art • •• For Whose Sake? EXPOSE ON "MODERN ART" Reade s eport. Disarming Suggestion • • \Ir. C. \. Crooms, :309 \\ l'Ston Hldg., Clinton. Iowa, wrote tlu Des .\Joines Regis­ter ancl Tribune protesting the artic:le in a Sunda} <."thtion (This \\ 7cek .\laga:.inc), "Get Rid of That Cun," b) \Ir. Bruce Smith, call­llll( .1ttcntion to thl' fal't that our Constitu­tion prosides that '"the right of the people to k1·(·p and bt•ar arms shall not be infringed." '"\Ir Smith forgot to mention," \Ir (.rooms' publish··d letter continued, "that tht· n·H>h er"i which Grl'o.lt Britain is d<.·..,trov­ing .trt· the 'ery mws contributed to them 1;) p.1triotic.: Americans during \\'orld \\'ar If. )ou S<'<'. the Englishman W<lS not allowt·d to O\\Tl firearms and when tht' thn:at of a Gt·r­llhlll in\ ;tsion \\\lS pn•snlt, .m appe.tl w.ts 111.tdc fur good old L' nd<· Sam to suppl) guns / .my kind \\'''re wdconw) in ordc.•r to proktt a titiZl·nry long sint(• dis~unwd." \Ir. Crooms has writtC'n to us about this Idler: "I, lik<• any othl'r nwmb<·r of th<' -\nwrican Riflt• Association, am conctrm·d about c.mv articlt• slanted to'' ards the dis­< lrming of th(• American c:itizen. . . It is most intNcsting to note that tht' Dl's .\Joines Rct{istcr cldek·d my rdert'nce to commu­nism . • .. On(' of the first stt'ps in tlw initial promotion of <l comm\111istic state is to dis­. inn till' citizrnn·. Somcwht•rt• 1llong thC' line it .llsn h<'tOmt'S nect•ss.uy to change the "trud11n· of tlw (•\isling form of gon•rn­lll<' nt." \Ir. Crooms suggt:sls that implementation of tlw incli,·idual clisarmanwnt r<'c:omm(·nded ll\· \Ir Smith's arti<:lt• would st·n·t· the Com­n1unist cause in two rl'Spl'ds: first, in C'fft'd­ml,! .l <.:h~1nge in the Constitution n<·c:(·ss;1r' to diminatp the O\\ nnship of firt·arn1s. and "c·cond, bys. t.king- to ~is;trm 011r citizeniv May This Tribe Increase! \Ir. Sakatore olimml', 7 Henchman St., Boston B, \lass., writes that only eight of the forty-eight states rt•quirt• by 1.tw the· 1<-.1thing of our Dl'cbration of lndepl'nd­• ·nt"<'. th<: Constitution and Bill of Rights, . rnd that these 'tat<'S are: California, lllinois, ·t·w Jn<it'y, 'ew \lt•\ic-o, Pt'nnsykania, \'ir· ginia, \\'isconsin and \linn('SOt.L The following rt'solution w.ts dr.l\\"11 up b~ \Ir. Soliminl' and JXlSSt·cl hv his \mcril'.1t1 L<·~ion Post, '\orth End '\o .. 5·1, .rnd th<· Suf­folk County \mrrit.m Lt·~ion, .md h.ts h<'t'll ,,.ft.rn'tl to tlw \fassachusdts Deparhrn:nt of tiw \mnic:an L<•gion for furth('r ~1ction: \\'hnr.1'. th(· tnu· prir1ciph•\ of \mni<·.1111"11 .1r1• not 1111lwld and n·,pt·<·t('d thro11!?;hout 1111r ..:rf' ,ll ,,\fi<H1, .mcl '' hf•rf ,\<Ii ContiHninl!'. on !hi' pri•\t•nt <·t111,..,f' ''ill lf· ul to tlH d1·,trn<'tinn of our \\',I\· of lifl•; ,llld \\'h1r1•1\. nnh t·ic:ht out of th(> IR 'if,1tr·oi nf our L'Tt•.11 ,,1tinn ri•quirt• lw l.1w tlw k,H·hinl! f nm kmcl1·n.!.trh·n tn nnl\t' .. ih nf our Dt·t·l.1P­h"" nf luclnw1u\1·m·t. th1· C:n•l'titutiun .rnd Hill ,,f Hil!hh ·'" .1 rNpiir1>d t1·.1c-h1111! c·onrw; he it ln•lhPr B1,oh1d, th.11 t1w (', t11T1Hlll"f"1lth nf \1.1 ....... 1- t 1111,l'tt'I P·"' .1 l,l\\- r1·quirin1.! 1 It 1thi111{ c-our,t• d tht· D1<I1r1tion of lncl1 p1 1ult>n<c, thC' Cnn-.t1- tutio 11111 ll1\I nf Hi!!ht • Fund for the Republic Questions Mental Health of Bricke r Supporters .. \n·ordi11g to a SJ)l'('<.:h hy s('lhttor Britl- 1·r. writ<·s \[rs. Paul Conolk" 77 n Bryn \la\\r. Dallas. Tl"\:IS, '" f"lu• huul for tiu lkpuhliC' has cli ... tnh11tc·d :!),000 n prints of Of, by, and for facts forum News readers ''" article by Profrssor Hichard 1 lof>tadtvr of Columbia \;ni,ersit\' c•ntitl!"d 'Th<' l's<"udo­Cons(' f\ ath·c Re\"olt:• in whi<.:h lw ch·finps th<' Bricker Amcndnwnt as 'on<' of q1~; pri111ary symptoms of pseudo-c:onser\'al1s111 . "Their political reattwns," ;t<.:<.:mdi11g to Profossor I lofstadter, "t•\pn·ss r.1th('r a pro­found if largely unconscious hatrt'd of 011r sotiety and its ways a hatr('d "hi<:h 01H' would hesit;ltc to impute to them if one did not hasc sugg(·sti\"e clinical <''·icknn·. From clinical inter,·ic:ws and tlwmatil appern·p­tion tests, _\ dorno and his co-\vorkers found that thl'ir psc11clo-const'n .tti\"<' snhj(·ds . show ... \ iolent(', anarthic: i111p11lst'. and t"haotic (kstrudiH·nt·ss in the 111ll'OJ1scio11s sphere' .... The pst•uclo-cons(·f\ a tin• t<·ncls to bC' more than ordinarily irwoll('n·nt about politics ... and the most ardt'nt supporters of the Brickc·r Amt'ndment. ... So111c organ­il'. t·rs of psC'udo-conscn at in· and 'patriotil' groups often find in this work a nwans of making a J1,·inp; thus turning a tend<'nc·y toward paranoia into a ,.ot'ation1tl asst't. ... " Professor llofstadkr implies, ac·c:ording to Sl'nator Bricker's speech, that the Ku Kill\ Klan is the spiritual ancestor of on!anil'.ations supporting the Britkl'r _\nwndmC'nt and c·on­ducks that in rect'nt yc'<trS ps(•11clo-conser\"a· ti\"('S ha\"(' r.list'd stancl;trds of hatint! and thus: " . • . haq• 111on·d on from anli-'rgro­ism and anti-Sc•mitism to anti-AdH•sonian ism, anti-intdlt·c:ltwlli"'n. <Int i-l'onfonnislll. •· • " Politics a Specialty" For New Book Shop Tlw Cadmus Book Shop n·c·<·ntl~ opt·n<·d .it 12 lO \\'isconsin \ \"t'IHtt', \.\\-., C<·org<'­town, \\-ashington, D. C. The young proprit·­tors hc_n-·<· 1.mnountl'd that thry will sp<·l'ializ<• m politics, and will handl<• books of "'off-th<"­ro. td publishing houS<•s that ha'c found it difficult to markc·t their books in \\'ashin~­ton." Th(·r \Jroposc to \toc:k rt'ports, pam­phlets, spt•<.•c· H'S, l'l<'., such as the Anwrican Lc•gion fight on ll'\ESCO. sp<T<-h<·s by Di<·s , ]<"nn('r, Eastl,rnd, <"le. Tl1<·y also plan to sponsor t1.tlks h:- anti Co111n111nisl "JW.tk(•rs . • Te ll Me Not In Mournful Numbe rs "S('nator \\ 11liam l· l\nowLtncl," writ(·s \liss \lanlrn fl llollistvr, I'. () llm I I II Fort B<.'1111i11g, C<.:orgi,1, '"h;1s 111,1<.k propos;.11 - that some p.11 t ol the dt'ht be paid ))('fort· ta\t•s art' n·du~t tor Knowland suggt'sts that onl' b1il L1rs lw paid this y<"ar and that onl)" posed 'tax take' which \vould rc!ll· 111ccti11g thl' nation;d huclgd and one billion dollars on the nahonal t·onsicl<.:r('(I 'tt\ ailahl<'' in onl<•r to put .1 tax reduction." \liss ll ollistcr asks if we <·sp<"d dren to pay this ~rowing national us? "\Vith thP shining exampll' we tin,I.! tlwm," slw comnwnts. "it '' doubt multiply to thl'ir childr,.n, children's children, ad fi11il11m." Slw suggests that a n•glilar p;i~ 01ir national dt•bt he madt• an inte,; of our national hudgd, and that no tration lw able to claim a "balanc<•l until this payment has hl'en made'. lion to full paym<'nl of current 't P<'llS('S. • Re Congressional Committee Meetings \ fr. E. C. Fret•ma11, P. 0. Box t I.as, T(•xas, asks, " I low can our coll he pn·sent at all times necessary tu informrcl vote for tlwir constitue111' committee mcctinj.!s coincide with tlw floor of both the I lous<' and th " It is my und(•rstanding," he \\'f 1 t·ach congressman is assigned to ~rit l'ommittecs, which should make 1~ "Id aside a certain portion of P'" wcl'k for committc•r meetings onh· tinw no action coulcl lw takt'n on ti 1·ilh<'r llou\<.'." • IN 01 Bi A1 on, Tt \1r r • l h :q G1 \fEL7 Familiarization with Pol ice Ri De partment \ CLt lTnder tlw sponsorship of \[r ' ] iJ Shal<'n, h<'<L<l of the English de) ()( 11 ( F1tzSimons Junior ll igh Schoo Philadelphia, P<'nnsyh ani1.l, a n1oy 1. h<'<'n i111tiat<'d to lm•ak down hos~ To S ( tlw stll<knts toward th<' police . 1. . . <'nd<·•wor to rcduc<' j11vt'nile dch. in om· of Philadl'lph ia's most er• Je an'ilS. \f r. Shaten invited 111en1 . y 111 ( polic<' forcl' to thl' school to ani;'' · dents' questions. and arrans.';t'cl. f1 Ri to ,.i,it poliee lwad(]11arters •1ri One; \ IJ<"adqu;trt<•rs, and to talk with p1 l1<·at. t Hpsults to dat(' : a gn·at ~Tdur.rc lIOt J tilt· attitudt''i. a11cl <l qtH•st1on!1·11 G h~· which lt-<·11<1$.!t'rs can h<" sh0'\ 0 Si ti1dt·s of polic<·nwn towards tht nl.ms for st11clc11ts to lwc-onw L11 \\> lo('.tl poliC'l'JlH"ll as p.trt or ci' ir~ BooK thrc·t· sl'hools. No. 2 <l, •·ti,l'.'. ll l illk • p•ut ol the 1:\l'S arl' n·d u~tl s that ont• bil and that only h wo\lld rc1Il· budget and FEBRUARY, 1956 1 the nati-Onnl in ordl'r to put jf WC l'\pl'c:l wing natiomtl 1g examp~~·. ,,.~ nments, it 1cir child rl'n, cl fini tum." a rc•guhir .P·1 ~ madt• an 10t •t and that n° ii;1 a "balanct.•(1 as been madt~· l or ("\ l f f l'Jl l , • Committee ,. n, l'. 0. Bo' ~ 1, .... <:an our ~o 1cs nccrsso.~ry .!it• heir const 1ll~ t coincide with • l!ousi• and ti . anding," he '\~ : assigned to 0 should makr '\,e portion of t . meet ings onh · l lw taken on t • 1111ith Police IN TH IS 01 Bn1 \I> ''o Cmn·s>:s Admiral Ben .Uorec/l oc I \Ll\\I • • . BY ·\'\Y OTllFH '\ ''lE J'om A11dcrso11 \irr Fon \\' 11osE SAKE? btlll'r )11/ia Pcls . · r" \Gl.\11 ,T L1sTu.s Grncml Roh1'1t \\'. Joh11so11 '1LLT"G Tm; Jno, Cun'" ... Part J lladio Free E11rope's 01c11 Sten·!/ \ CLosr-:-LP \·1nv OF H \DIO Fm 1 Et nOPl "'"hip of \f r. Jiri Brada "' English def Ot·n Co'"IO' TASK ll igh Scho<> 1 Edgar lloo~cr syh-an ia, a Ol~~l ·"ak down ho. I To St nscnrn1 ·cl th<' polic<' . T c jnw nilc dch~ llE Tiu,D" T>, \CllEH Tn."""G .hia's most c lean II. llc11r!I in\·itt'cl n1e1!~\ Tim 0Pi:n \TIO:'\ school to an I•~ R. IF. B11rto11 . rncl arranged. J1d caclquarters '1 One \'\JZ \ flO'\ Tn \DE Coo PL n \ 1 JO'\ to t.1\k with Pro a11d Con . . . ·1101 LD \fonr:s Br: C.1."0111 "~ G11£>st Panelist: Arth11r /)(' Bra o S1-:r-nt:TS A"· \!om:? \\'arren E. B11rger BOOK lh.\'ILWS How TO E .\H" ' \\'onu> Curn1 T\ L \\IP ES\TOn \VnK1'S Conni:n' h" c 1·n \CY Lxu-R \ISl'C PLA'' . ' "'Oll\(\Tl\'E FOR\Jl'L.\ \D10 -''D T\' Sc 111.Dt 1.1' FACTS FOHU~I is nonpro fit nnd nonpartisan, c;upporting no political candidatC' or p a rty. 1'11cts Fonnn 's nctivities arc clt•signNI to prt'sl·nt not just o nt• \ i1·w of a controve r..ial i'iS ut•, hut oppmin)! 'it·ws, bdh·vins.t that it is lh<' ri ,1.!ht and tlw ohli· )Zation of the Amc·rican peo plt• tht· m-;t·IH.'' to l<'.lnl nil tht facts and come to t1wir O\'>' ll cond11-.iom . SIC'\EO ARTICLES a p1warin i: in F\CTS FOHU\I '\EWS do not nect ·ss.1ri ly rt'JlH"Sl'llt tht opinion or the edito rs. \f .\'\USCRIPTS suhmitted to F .\C fS FOHL"\f '\EWS .,h ould be accompanit.'<l by st.unped , st· it addn·"ed t'O\-·elopcs. Puhlhht·r a s\m1ws no n· .. pon­~ ihilit y for rt'turn of unsolicited manu'ic ript'i. SUBSCRIPTIO~ RATES in the U.S. and U.S. l>Os,<:ssiom, $2 per year, $.5 for thn·t• years, All o tht•r countrit·s, $3 per yea r. T o suhscrih<.'. ~t·t p aJ.!t• .'J I. CJL\'\GE OF ADDRESS: St•nd old nddn• ss ( <.· :omc:tly <l s imprinted on mailing lahel of your c.·opy of FACTS FOHUM NEWS) nnd 11 t•w addn·" to FACTS FC>nU~ I '\E\VS, Dt·partnwnt C,\ , Dalla .. I. rt•:\;\ S. Pll'ase a llow thrl't' Wt·t•ks for c:h;lll ,1.!t'H\l'r. Second Installment 2 JO l:) 16 23 28 31 36 :39 46 49 .51 5'> 53 54 OLL Qt·Esno's -''D Pou. <)11s110' \V1>1,EHS 57,58,59,60,62,63 61 61 6·1 I OR TllE \IO"\Tll 64,65 PHOTO CHU)l'I \ l'.11.!1· 2, Homan Colos.,t·nm, \\'i<le \\'orld J',1c:t· 2, City Sct·llt', Undcrn:ood & Underwood ACTS Font"\I X L\\' , Fc:bruarlJ, 19.56 The first requisite of a good citi;:;e11 i11 tliis RC'p11l1lic of 011rs is that he shall p111/ his teeigl1t. - T11LODOHL HoosL\'LLT I know 110 safe dq>0sitor1J of the ultimate poicers of soci<'ty b11t the people thi'mselvcs; and if we think th em not enlight­ened e11011gh to rxNcise their control tcith a u:hol£>some dis­cr£> tio11 , the rem('(/y is not to take it from them lmt to inform their discretion hy ed11catio11. - TllO!\IAS JEFFl:HSO'\" In all those things tcl1icl1 di'al tcith people, bi' liberal. be 1111- man. In all thos£> things 1cl•ich drnl tcith the p<'oplc's mo11<'y or thl'ir economy. or thi'ir form of government, IJC conservative - and don't be afraid to 11se the trnrcl. - Pnr.sm1:"T Dw1c11T D. E1sE.,11o"·rn D£>mocraq1 is lms('(l 011 tlie concictio11 that tl11'rc are ex­traordinary possibilitii's in ordi­nary people. - H .\HHY E\IEHSO' FOSDICK Govern111('11t is fore(' and sho11ld be 1ctitcl•<'d like fir<'. - GEOHGE \ VASlllJ\GT0'1 That gov£>n11111'11t is be.rt that admini.rrNs ;w;tice 1cith the least expense and has 110 i11t1'rfere11ce 1cith the l10111'st p11rs11its of any man. - R1c11 \HD \loTT P ersons submitti n .- quotation whit'h •re used in thi !J t'olumn will receive one-year subscriptio n 111 to Fads Forum News. 1f a lready a sub t ribtr, the co n ­tributor may dHiJtnate another penon to whom the a" a rd sub111c-rlption will be se nt, or he may w ish to extend hi s present sub"lcrfption. Be s ure to li st tht- a uthors and sources or aJI quotations. Page 1 THE GLORY THAT \VAS .. . THE GLORY THAT IS ... "The fall o( Rome affords a pertinent illustration o( the observation by the late Presiile1 Lowell of Harvard UniyersitY· that ''.'io society is eve1· murderr - it commits suicide.' " Of Brefil w. is to I w: lSepa nd t( '('C n f our iands sh as iples >ecla Let The Roman poet Juvenal '\ l'l ( 111 wrote of his dei,:;cncrate cot• Perl men about 100 .D.: hich " .•. the public has lonl! ~i11' merj east off its cares ..• and Her Ion "S ca"crlv for just h• o tbi opl1 '"' "' · oods hretul anfl <·ircuses . .,' u r g·r FAcrs Fonu\c 'i·:ws, iatcn rat . na eoplc f th > A mm1AL BE~ ).lonEELL's twenty-nine years of outstanding mn·al sen ice has brou~ht him many honors, including the Distinguished Sen ice ).ledal, the Legion of ).lerit, se\ era! honorary degrees, a decoration from the Brifoh go,·ernment, and two from the Republic of Haiti. Of all his citations, however, he is proudest of being called "King Bee of the Seabees," for he was organizer during the first part of World War II of that remarkable group of "Can-Do Boys," the Naval Construction Battalion. · affords 1tion o[ the late Pre;.iilr~ UniversilY· ever murdert ide.'" \Veil known as a brilliant student, naval engineer, impromptu speaker, and a tireless worker, ).loreell came up through the ranks, becoming a full admiral in 19-15. Consistent with his belief in hard work is the remark he once made to a friend: "If you can't find enough work to keep busy, you can always write a book," which he did early in his caree1 with marked success. When Admiral ~Iorecll retired from active naval duty in 19-!6, his "active duty" in pri­vate industry and in go,·cmmcnt service was just beginning. Both labor and management have lauded his ability and objccti' ity in dealing with strike problems. Ile has sen eel as chairman of the important Task Force an \Vatcr Resources and Power of the Iloo,·er Com­mission. At present he is Chairman of the Board of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, one of the largest steel companies of the world. refind Circuses By ADMIRAL BE MOREELL WANT TO sell vou an idea. And all I ask in payment is that you thi~k it over and if vou like it, sell it to others! ' · I want to sell vou the idea that indiddunl fr('cdom, an iseparable part ·of which is moral responsibility to God nd to one's neighbor, is the secret of our sunival as a "('e nation, just as it was the inspiration of the founders f our republic. This concept of indi\idual frt'edom de- 1ands that we do someth ing about it - that we re-estab­sh as our guiding beacon those moral values and prin­iplcs of governmen t which found ('Xpress ion in our >eclaration of lndepcndenct• and our Constitution. Lt•t us begin our discussion of freedom on the mundane et Juvenal 1 ''Pl of material prosperitv and the reasons therefor. generate eot1 1 ' l'.erhaps the most intrig.uing question of our times, one D.: Inch hafflt's our friends and enemies is this : what makes • ·111 . , c has Ion~ e1 menca so productive? . anil Herc is a nation with barely 6 per ct'nt of the world's .s : · ; t 0 tbi ople which produces almost 40 per C(•nt of the world's ,.. JU,~ " oods. Ilow dO('S this happen'.0 Some have attributed it to iscs. ur great natural resources; i.e., the abundance of our raw iaterials, the fertility of our soil, the blessings of a tcm­(' rate climate, and the protection against ('11('111ies affor(kd . natmal harrit•rs. It is gt'nPrally conceded that our <'Opie have no more innate intcllig(•nc<• than the [J('Oples f tlw countries "hence thev came. So our f;n·orcd posi­on is attributed to gifts ~howered upon us as manna ·om heaven. ' c-rs FonuM ;\;Ews, Fcbrnary, 1956 But doubts arise when one compares our advantages with thost' of others. For there arc some countries even more favon•d than ours in raw materials, fertile soil, cli­matic conditions, protective barriers and other geolo.gical and geographic gifts. Furthermore, our natural advantages lay for centuries relatively unused, supporting fewer than a million inhabitants. Now they support 16.5 million people of our own who, in turn, support much of the rest of the world. What is the answer? It is my purpose to explore that question with you, to learn what accounts for our present pre-eminence, and whether the things we are now doing will serve to maintain or destroy it. Every productive organization needs three essential elements: men, money and machines. The greatest of these is men! For with men of high moral character, abilit~· and dt'\O tion to a worthy purpose, one can acquire the mon('~ and the machines. The basic essential is the right kind of men! \Ve have many proofs of this in our industrial corpora­tions. There arc many examples of outstanding success \\hich sprouted from lowly beginnings. And always the measure of success is the reflection of one man, or of a small group of men, who have imbued the organization with their character, ability and devotion! As it is \\ith industrial corporations, so it is with our nation. National productivity is the summation of the pro­ductivities of the groups a"m! indi\ iduals who comprise Page 3 the nation. But jw,t as the vigor of <ll1 organiza­tion or of a nation 1s dependent upon the moral strength and stamina of its people, so "ill its deea} ensue with the deca) of its people. ;\lone) and machines become sterile and unpro­du<; ti' e without the right kind of men to use them. Therefore, in these troubled clan of hot and cold '"1rs, inflation, defl,ition, depression, recession, crime, COITup­tion, juvenile dclinquen<;y and other economic and social problems, we should attempt to appraise the effects of our current pol ides (governmental, social, and economic:) on the charac­ter and spiritual health of our basic resource. the people of this nation. This is our chief concern. This is what has made our country the emy of the world. THE LESSONS OF HISTORY There are manv lessons to be learned from the records of history. \ncl. of these, l believe we can gain most from a study of the moral decay which preceded the disintegration of the Homan Empire. The characteristics of the early Ro­man people. the story of the founding of their kingdom, and later their re­public, their independence of thought, their derntion to fre •clom, their indi­vidualit), their industry, all point to the fact that our own pioneers had much in common with those sturdv folk. . L"'.\;DUlWOOO A t:!'\DERWOOD (Continued) OF But Home was only 8!2 centuries old when the poet j11\·enal pennc·d his famous tirade against his degenerate countrymen. About 100 \.D. he wrote: ":\ow that no one buvs our votes, the public has long sinC:·e cast off its cares; the people that once be­stowed commands, consulships, le­gions and all else, now meddles no more and longs eagerly for just two things, bread and circuses." Forty years later, the Roman historian, Fron­to, echoed the charge in more prosaic language: "The Roman people is ab­sorbt'd by two things above all others, its food supplies and its shows." Herc was a once-proud pt'ople, whose government had been their ser­vant, who had finally succumbed to the blandishments of clever political a(h cnturers. They had gradually re­linquished their sovereignty to gov­ernment administrators to "horn thev had granted absolutl' powers, in re­turn for food and entertainm(•nt. And the surprising thing about this insid­ious progression is that, at the time, few realized that thev were witness­ing the slow destruct.ion of a people by a corruption which would evcn­tualh transmute a nation of self-re­liant: courageous, sovereign individ­uals into a mob, dependent upon their government for the means of sustain­ing life. Like the rest of the world, Rome, during those earlv centuries. was lart?;CI) agricultural. Its people• ob­tained their economic necessities in the only way that these can be pro­duced: they worked in order to eat. Economic goods are produced by the application of human energy to nat-portt ural resources. Once produced. t ,mc] goods may he consumed by the . tertaii ducer or he may trade them or · lorlll them awa) or someone may steal I lll'opli from him. But robberv cannot Fro duce goods. It can only depri,·e was producer of what is r ightfully h1< fh e throni DESTRUCTION BY SOCIAL CANC f th the l>Th~ Creator has laid do" n the cal P< that man shall cat his bread 111 cured sweat of his face." But, unfortun3 uttin there arc always people who be histor that they can improve on the instan' ator's scheme of things. So, the) and tempt to substitute a man-made were. which says, "If you arc smart en A or strong enough, you can cat torv bread in the sweat· of the other of 'tiii law's face." the u It did not take the smart llol ,mcJ 51 long to find ways of acquiring Jf bu peoples' property without worki11 ::lencv it, that is, by conquest and en< hest ·t mcnt of the conquered. At the nant time, the•\ resorted to another eXI ••• T ent. The} kept the reins of go' t11rv 1 ment in the hands of a rulin~ ' :1n whose members used their po'' ' fans live on the labor of the unC11 :ance chiscd. In order to appease those >c do were made uncomfortable hv ti• •Vcakt rangcmcnt, the ru lers reso(ted .. \J arc1 program of "social legislation. nou~ which we now call "welfare st,it he b1 This was the beginning of the ob h Continual wars which returned I lusin~ der and slaves to Home, thus hri1 .he t!I honest labor into disrepute; a s Orc•ig dependencP on a government 1 1ous 1 had no foundation of clcar-c11t ind ti ciplcs; a permanent dole which ht· H1 Il l( in vorth 111ma1 PRC Th lt•scri hon1 corn . . ncJ j1 \'C ca he p nan 1 o taJ... ind s vhcln The Roman historian, Franta, echoed the charge of the poet Juvenal about 40 years later in more prosaic lan ­guage: "The Roman people is absorbed by two things above all others, its food supplies and its shows." Have the American people learned enough from history to ovoid the pitfall that caused the ru in of dozens of civ ilizations? Page 4 FACTS FonL''l '11· ws, F ebr11flfl CIRCUSES ti ported almost half the population, produc(•d, and brutal gladiatorial combats to en- 1mcd by the · lt'rtain and distract all combined to tdc them or [form a setting for n;oral decay of the 1C may steal t pl'oplc. )Cry cannot From 96 A.D. to 180 A.D., there only c\epn,·e was a period of S-! years during which rightfully hi' fi,·e remarkable 1!1en occupied the throne of Home in succession. The last SOCIAL CANC· f these was ;\Jarcus Aurelius, one of the best men who ever wielded politi­aid down the cal power. If a social cancer can be his brcacl 10 ured from the top down merely by lut, unfortuna uttmg good men into public office, •oplc who br(h1story would surely record it in this ·ove on the instance. For if cYer rulers were able ings. So, the~ and unselfishly dcYoted, these men a man-made "ere. But thC\ failed. are smart cnt A philosopl;cr and student of his­you can cat 'tory, Albc•rt Jav No.;k, has observed of the other ol this period, ''Thcv clcarl1• foresaw the upshot ol organized mt•ndicancy ;he smart. Fo~ .md subYention, of the growing power )f acqwnng. 'JI bureaucracy, of the growing tcn­ithout work1 ~:dency to centralization. They did the 1uest and en best thc•y could to check these malig­crcd. At the. n.mt growths, but could do nothing. to another r'i · · . The emperors of the second cen­~ reins of. go'.tmy remind one of nothing so much 1 of a rul111g an arra1 of the world's best phvsi­cd their po''' .•ians stri_:ing to reclaim a hopeless of the unc~ cancer patient ... The thing could not appease thoS]Ji· >' done ... The cancer ... had so far ~ortable by t •Veakened its host that at the death of lcrs reso~·ted,, \ Jarcus Aurelius there was simply not I Jegislat1on. ·nough producing power IC'ft to pay I "welfare st•1t he hills. Under the exactions of the ~inning of t1;r. oh. holders, nobody could clo any 1ich rl'turncL. >11s111ess, fields went until led and even lome, thus brl'. :he army had to be recruited among disrepute; H 1 Ore1gners ... Eighty years of contin­government ' mus effort by five of the world's best 1 of clcar-C~1 h md ablest rulers could not prevent nt dole wl11C he· Homan populace from dcgenerat-ng into the \'Cry scum of the earth, vorth!ess, vicious, contemptible, sheer 111n1an sculch." IC Ian ~ 1ve the at ions? PROSPERITY - BY GOVERNMENT SUBVENTION There arc no precise records which k·sc:nbe the feelings of those for vhom the poet Juvenal felt such Corn. But using the clues we have •ncl judging b\' our own experience'. ve can make a· good guess as to what he prevailing sentiments of the Ro­nan populace were. lf we were able take a poll of public opinion of first 111d second centurv Rome the o'er­,, ielming response woulcI probablv Ill\ t' ,,lwen - ''\\'c never had it so ood. Tl~osc who lived on "public sistancc and in subsidized rent-free >r l<l\\-rent dwellings, would ccrtainlv i:n·c .:1ss11red us that now, at last. the\ ~a~. S(:curity." Those in the rapid!\, · l ·llld1ni.: burt•aucracy - mw of the Font·,1 XFws, Febrnary, 19.56 most efficient ci,il sen·ices the ,,·orltl has e1-er seen - "otild tell us that now go\ernmcnt had a "conscience" and \\'as using its vast resources to guaran­tee the ""'elfarc" of all of its citizens; that the civil service gm c them job sccuril\ and retirement benefits; and that tlic best job was a government job! Progrcssh e members of the busi­ness communitv would haYc said that business had ncYer been so good, that the gon•rnment was their largest cus­tomer, which assured them a depend­able market, and that the governnwnt was inflating currency at about 2 per cent a year, which instilled confickncc and gan• everyone a sense of well­being ancl prosperity. And no doubt the farmers were well pleased, too. They supplied the grain, the pork and the olive oil, at or above parity prices, for the government's doles. The go,·crnmcnt had a continuous program of huge-scale public works whic:h were said to stimulate the econ­omy, pro,·ide jobs and promote the general welfare, and which appealed to the national pride. The high tax rates required by the subsidies discouraged the entrepre­neur with risk capital which, in turn, favored the well-established, compla­cently prosperous businessman. It appears that there was no serious objection to this by any of the groups affected. An economic historian, writ­ing of business conditions at this pe­riod, says, ''The chid object of eco­nomic activity was to assure the indi\idual, or his family, a placid and inactiYC life on a safe, if moderate, income ... There were no technical impro1·ements in industry after the early part of the second century." There was no incentive to venture. !mentions began to dry up because no one could reasonably expect to make a profit out of them. Home " ·as sacked bv Alaric and his Goths in .JlO A.D. But long before the barbarian invasions, Home was a hol­low shell of the once nobli:- republic. l ts real grandeur "as gone and its people "ere demoralizt'd . .\lost of the old forms and institutions remained. But a people" hose horizons were lim­ited ll\ bread and circuses had de­stroyed the spirit while paying lip­scn ·ice to the letter of their once hallo,,·ed traditions. The fall of Home affords a pertinent illustration of the ohser\'ation by the late President Lo\n•ll of llarrnrd l:ni­\' Crsit, ·, that "Xo socict\' is C\'er mur­dered. - it commits suicide." l do not imply that bread and cir­cuses arc e\·il things in thcmscJycs. .\Jan needs material sustenance and he needs recreation. These needs are so basic that thc1 come within the purview of every. religion. Jn every religion there is a harvest fcsti\'al of thanksgiving for good crops. And as lor recreation, we need only recall that our word "holiday" was originally "holy day," a day of religious obscrl'­ance. In fact, the circuses and games of old Home " ·ere religious in origin. Thee' ii was not in bread and circuses, per sc, but in the "illingness of the people to sell their rights as free men for full bellies and the excitement of the games which would serve to dis­tract them from the other human hun­gers which bread and circuses can never appease. Th<' moral decay of the people was not caused by the doks and the gamt'S. These merely providrd a measure of their degrada­tion. Things that were originally good had become perverted and, as Shakes­peare reminds us, "Lilies that fester smell worse than wrecls." CAN WE PROFIT FROM HISTORY? But something else was happening far below the surface of Homan politi­cal life during the first three centuries of our era. Herc and there in parts of the Homan Empire around the l\lcditcrranean were little groups of people who were trying, as best they could, to follow One who had said, "I am the \Va) , the Truth and the Life." These groups, so insignificant at first in numbers, later to be sub­jected to persecution and slaughtered in the games to provide entertain­ment, were eventuallv to become the force that \\'Otild sto1) the cruel com­bats ol the arena and, when Rome col­lapsed, would salvage from the ruin the remnants of Hon1C''s grandeur for a legae\' to \Vestern civilization. The (Joles and games lasted for cen­turies in spite of attempts to stop them by political power. They continued until a new religious faith gave the multitude something to live bv and to die for! \Ian docs not lh c by bread Page 5 alone and if he tries to do it, the af­front 'to his deep spiritual nature will not be wiped out by providing him with excitement and distractions! Rome is not an isolated example. There were other instances of the dis­integration of a nation resulting from decay of the moral fiber of the peo­ple. The eminent historian, the late James H. Breasted, when asked whether he had discovered any similar cases in the ancient world, replied, "'Yes, I have dug up at least a dozen." How can we profit from these les­sons of history? Today, in our own country, we see many of the old spir­itual and temporal values which once we cherished called into question. The Constitution is challenged both as to letter and spirit. The original idea of a go\'ernment with narrowly !united powers has been discarded. Personal liberty is being traded oil for an un­stable "security" based on politically motivated guarantees. The faith of our founding fathers in a government of equal justice for all has been under­mined. \Ve are returning to the old idea of government by special privi­lege against which they revolted. Everv planned society, welfare state scheme comes down to this: dubious benefits for some of us at the expense of the rest of us. These things are be­ing sold to us under the guise of an ephemeral and misnamed humanitar­ianism called the "general welfare." A LIBERTARIAN'S CREED Yet, we are not without weapons with which to fight this decay and to promote healthy gro" th. The greatest of these is a new concept of the worth of the individual person which devel­oped in Europe over the centuries and is one of the richest fruits of Chris­tianitv. The idea came to America "ith the earliest settlers, who ga\'e it a political interpretation. This stemmed from the belief of our founding fathers that there is a pattern laid dotcri by God for man's comluct in society. It forms the basis of the modern liber­tarian's creed which T would sum­marize as follows: First - \Ian's rights to life, liberty and li\'elihood come from God. They are inalienable. It is the function of gov­ernment to makr those rights secure. And when any form of government fails to sen·e this end, it is the right and duh of the people to alter or abolish ft. Second -The functions of go,·ernment should be limited to doing for all, Page 6 (Continued) OF BR E A ~ that and only that, which each one has 'a right to do for himself. Spe­cifically, go,·ernment should defend the lives, liberties and livelihoods of the nation's citizens, invoke a common justice and keep the rec­ords incidental thereto. Other than this, the people should be fre~ to pursue their own interests pro,·1ded such pursuit docs not lead them to trespass on the rights of others. Human nature being weak, the sta­bility of limited go\'ernmcnt can be assured only where political power is dispersed or fragmentized. cal P• takes. I have no further intcres sion , you." and ! One wonders what ;\!011111 only would say today in the light of no d increasingly rapid destruction of ment: traditional values during the figur twenty-five years. to the ;\(any of our people have been <leper vertcd to the idea that libcrt) th been tried and found wanting, ju ta~i , many bclicYc that Ch1·istianit) Third - The natural roots of human liberty are founded in God's moral law, i.e., in religion. Cut off from these roots, liberty, standing alone, is too fragile a thing to survive very long in our kind of world. Fourth - The fruit of liberty is free­dom of indi\'idual choice. But with this freedom there must go, hand in "The natural roots of human liberty are found· ed in God's moral law, i.e., in religion. Cut off from these roots, liberty, standing alone, is too fragile a thing to survive very long in our kind of world." hand, indi,·idual moral responsibil­itv for the results of that choice. F~ccdom of choice requires a free­market economv where the value of goods is dctern{incd by the satisfac­tions they produce for willing trad­ers in terms of other goods. There arc many disturbing signs that we arc mo\'ing :\\\ ay from these basic disciplines of our founding fa­thers. \lore than fifty years ago, th<' great historian of Rome, Theodore ;\lommsen, came to our country on a , isit. At a reception in his 'honor, someone asked him, "l\lr. l\lommscn, what do \'Oil think of our country?"' The grNt scholar r<'plied, "With two thousand years of European experi­ence ])('fore ,·our ('\'l'S, \'OU have re­peated eYCr): one 'of Europe's mis-been tried and found wanting. p;op~ do not know that what has beefl I s ur wanting is not the true values ol du1lp~ erty and religiou but onlv pcrveP v's 1 ' h ' p 1ews worthless counterfeits. So w e undc urge upon them those trnc 'i" Su re they shy away. They have been tio~ 0 before; so they want to h·y sorne and which they think is "new." and ~ A "NEW DEAL" plot D Tht From such thinking sprang the centra cept of the" 'cw Deal"' - the ;de bun by substituting man's law of for!. upon God's law of love, people .cJ tion, I made to "do good" for their nc.1~h to pn By a curious line of renson1nC· the "c humanitarians who ath·ocntetl hon, I measures have concluded that 1 which ond of the two great commando downl "Thou shalt love thy neighbor :JSbel'n self," can be enforced by the l First_ power of the state and that, wht the happens, the first, "Thou shalt 1°'. mer Lord thy God," ceases to ha'' Secon significance. 1 tion Our current position is m~c ~ upo precarious because, in many 111> priv we fail to receive support £rofll~ ess to whom we look for stre11gt Third urge people to go back to chttr . tion there they frequently find ~h· poli very forces which ha\'e impn'~A izccl traditional beliefs have also .' 1 f ,011 ,.tJ the very source of those behC grc church itsclfl . 111 1 The contemporary religiott5 't. c f f 'l 11'· · !\(' is in a state o con usion. " a 'r J;'· prominent and articulate c~1tJ 1 '1fth · and some of our most 1118 stat1 church bodies have favored the chm ization of our national life ar'.. urg(•d that more power be Pt'.. the hands of government. Oth · Th sought to make the churches 0 \ iherti a political force to put pre'~ le-rs j legislators. In short, those tot {n·oI we should look to guide us 0 1 \ >t>ars morass of materialism and 'P nal ir posed humanism appear \ t t up "made a d<'al" for a partner:1, lrictl' twc~n God and C:~csar, ''tt . nc·" playmg the role of silent par c'- n111ipi How far have we depart · nno1 Ol'r traditional yalues? The~ ilitic• mvstcr\' here. It is well kno\\11 t b;;sic rioJicics of the two J11tljO 'H'rs FAc-rs Font '>l News, Fc11r11~ B RE A _A_N_D_C_l_R_c_u_s_E_s ______________ _ cal parties with respect to the inb·u­irther intcre> sion of the state into the economic and social lives of the people differ 1ha t i\!on111 only in degree and method. There is the light of no discernible dillercnce in funda­lestruction °1 mental principle. Prominent political during the figures of both parties pay lip-service 0 to the. letter of our Declaration of ln­le have. beef:\ dependence and Constitution, while that l.ibcr :~ they violate the spirit. i\ lany impor­d war~~l~·il1 tant and vocal elements among our d Chr s ti'. 1g · people agree among themselves that n wan 1 th· I cell· 1 "o ur C ons t·1 tu t.1 0n 1· s ou t mo d c d." Tl my ;a as 1) cs ol support the thesis of a prominent Swe­ruel va ~r\'cr> dish Socialist, Gunnar Myrdal, whose \ 0n ~ P whrll views have recrmtly been dignified, : s. ~. c r• t~ndeservcdly, by being cited by our 1osc i ~en fi Supreme Court, that, "The Constitu­y hav~ J soiue lion of the United States is impractical it.,to ~. and unsuited to modern conditions" I new. and that its adoption was "nearly a , DEAL" pl?~ against the common people." e I he proponents of an all-powerful ng sprang th centralized government have erected ea!'' - the iclCI· a bureaucratic colossus which imposes l's law of for• upon our people controls, rcgimenta­e, peo~Jle ,·~h tion, punitive taxation, and subsid.ies for then· nc 1 ~ to pressure groups thus parallclmg of rcasoninC· the ··organized me~dicancy, subvcn- 0 advoc;1tc1 hon, bureaucracy and centralization" :ludcd that 11' •hich played so great a part in the :at commancl1 : downfall of Rome! This result has 1y neighbor '~ bem accomplished: recd by thj V First - By tortured interpretations of and that, "'t, the "general welfare" and "com­Thou shalt 0 mercc" clauses of the Constitution· eases to ha'' Secmul - By an ill-ad,ised constitu~ . . . adr honal amendment which confers 1tion is rn'. ,t. upon Congress power to confiscate 1, in rnany 111~1 private property without due proc­support fro"'~ css of law; for s trcni,,. · fl · z B f b k t chi1rc im - Y court decisions o ques-ac fl d th; bonable jurisdiction motivated by ~ytly .n p·iil' political expediency and rational-l rn'c in~; ,1f ized by new "social doctrine·" 1avc as . f' •01 ·ti B bd. . I , f those bcl1r 11 1 - Y a 1cation by t 1c Con- ' gr<'ss of its ind<'pcndent authority 11",1· ·ary re ,,., 0 os ra nd power in favor of the cxccu-f . 111 ·11'1' i1·C', anc\ 1 us10n. ' 'rt r''f 1 rticulate ch0 8 '1 1 1 - By bribery of the sovereign ur rnost in 1 states into submission to federal •e favored thr domination. tional life arJ power be P' THE EROSION OF LIBERTY rnmcn t · Ot.h 0r1 . Tl icsc measures have so crockd the 1e churchc;cs> 1 l~C'rt~· of the i.ndil idual that one \\'On­to put ~ to le .is if .tlw victory of the \nwrican ort,. thos . 11t {c 'Olut1on has been prC'scrn·d! lt ap­> gt11de us 1° 1t Wars that \\'C hav(' rejectecl the orig­ialism anc ii nal intrnt of our founding fatlwrs to n appear ,]! <'t up a gov<'rnmcnt of ~arrow], rc­:> r a partn~:itl trict<'d powers, anc\ suhstitutC'd for it C~csar, ·irtl ' n~·\\· conc<'pt which demands that of s1knt P· rte' 111 n1potc•11t gowrnnwnt should assume i we dcpn er£ 'C'<~i'.om ic, social and moral rcsponsi- 1·ali1C's? Th t lllth<'s for a servile people! s we'll kno111,1 1 the two rn3J 0 ~,<Ts Font\! '\1 :ws, Fclmwn/, 19.56 This brings to mind the warning given us by the great English scholar and statesman, i\Jacaulay, in 1857. He said, "Either some Caesar or Napo­leon will seize the reins of government with a sh·ong hand; or your republic will be as fearfully plundered and laid waste by bm·barians in the twentieth century as the Roman Empire was in the fifth; - with this dilfcrcnce, that the Huns and Vandals who ravaged the Roman Empire came from with­out, and that your Huns and Vandals will have been engendered within your own counb·y by your own insti­tutions." The conccnb·ation of power in the E'ccutive Department has dangerous­ly impaired that system of checks and balances which our founding fathers erected with such great care and de­' out faith to be the guardian of our liberties. Today, the power of the federal gO\·ernment penetrates into ever) nook and cranny of our lives, so that man> of us have drifted into the easy habit of looking to government as an instru­ment of positive action to solve all of our problems and to provide not only so-called "security" but even case and comfort. \Ve accept without protest the the­sis that government shou ld have the power to deprive certain citizens of the fruits of their labors, in order to benefit others who cannot, or will not, provide for their own needs, as those needs arc determined by vote-seeking administrators. Every lover of liberty bC'lievcs devoutly in voluntary gifts and charity. But he objects to the im­position of a "pseudo-charity" by gov­ernment on unwilling givers. For he foresees these sure results of such action: First - The victim is deprived of what he produces, which destroys his incentice to producC' - and his con­ficlcnce in the two commandments - "Thou shalt not con•t" and "Thou shalt not steal." Second - The one who rcccin·s un­earned gifts is rclicl'cd of the need to produce which, likewise', destroys his inccntil'c and leads him to de­pend for his sustenance on a patc•r­nal government which, in return, demands his ,·otc as a prerequisite' for aid. Third As production inevitably de­clines, th<' coercive state must rC'sort to force. \\'ith Yoluntary production dcstroyPd, tlw powers-that-he seek a wa\ to '\1 hip up" production among the c,·cr-incrcasing non-pro-duccrs and among those who, tllC' authorities think, arc insufficient producers. E'en the original benC'­Iiciaries become the victims of the thing they helped contrive. The "carrot" of incentive is now discard­ed in £.\\"or of the "stick" of coer­cion. The planners who hoped that their 0\ er-all plans for salvation would be accepted voluntarily no\\ see that, since success depends on acceptance of the plan, they must eliminate opposition. They resort to force; their very dC'votion to tllC' noble ends they seek blinds them to the immorality of the means the) employ. Fourth-Those who are endowed with the political powC'r to make others conform to their wills inevitably de­velop a moral weakness. There are many instances in contemporary his­tory of a bene1·olcnt ruler who, after an extended period ot exercising political power, concludes that po" - er and wisdom are the same thing and that, since he possesses power, he must also possess wisdom. He becomes converted to the seductive thesis that election to public office endows the official with both po\\'cr and wisdom. At this point, he has great difficulty distinguishing be­tween what is morally right and what is politically expedient. DIVINE RIGHT OF THE POPULAR MAJORITY I have mentioned the destructive clfect on the moral fiber of the indi­ddual \\'hen he is deprived of his nat­ural right to choose freely in economic and social matters and of his moral responsibility for the results of his choice. Also, we have noted the cor­rosive effect of government largess<' on public and private morals. During the past two years, I haYc had an excellent opportunity to ob­serl'e these effects in their practical applications. As Chairman of the Task Force on \\'ater lksources and Power of the Iloo' C'r Commission, l rcccivC'd mam "rittcn and oral statements from elect<'d officials. public administrators. legislators, pri,·atl' citizens and from bencficiaril's of go,·ernnwnt "economic and social uplift"' projects in all parts of the countrv. The most ·discouraging frat11rc of th<'se communications was the appar­c'nt <'agcrnPss of a largt'. or at lC'ast a ,·ociferous, portion of our t)('opl<' to reach out for go' l'rnment bcnC'fits. ThC'y appcarC'd not to know, or they Page 7 r'''•t/ 0" '-·• .., j ~.,,,_r~~~~-O_F~B_R_EA~D_A_N~D_C_l_R_C_U_S_E_S_ic_o"c1-u ~ perancc, frugalit) and virtue, and by toward collectivism. Let there b< frequent recurrence to fundamental more special privileges for c!l1J 1 principles." crs, cmploycs, farmers, business" were um\illing to face the fact, that go,·ernment produces nothing; what it gives to one citizen, it must take away trom another. In effect, they were call­ing upon government to do the job from which they shrank; and they con­sidered such action to h,n·e moral sanction because it had political sanc­tion! I am no prophet of inevitable doom. or any other group. This is the On the contrary, I am sounding an icst step of all. We need onl~ alarm that disaster lies ahead unless frain from passing more soci•l 1 present danger signals are heeded. I laws. firmly believe that the u;orld is now Second - Let us undertake at on HP on the threshold of u;/wt could be a orderly demobilization of rnrtt ki< great dynamic expansion of spiritual the existing powers of govcn1 1 and material prosperity tchic/1 1co11ld by the progressive repeal of U tax the world's moral and productive socialistic laws which we a!~ ever \\'e appear to have abandoned the dew of our founding fathers that in the field of morality only God's pres­ence makes a valid majority; instead \\'e have substituted the doctrine of "the divine right of the popubr ma­jority." powers to meet humanity's needs. The have. This will be a \'Cf}' din to beii world looks to America for moral lead- step because every pressure 1!1'· a b ership. But true moral leadership ex- in the nation will fight to rcl<l' ommi ists only when there is no gap between subsidies, monopoly privilcgrl \fill \\'hat is true in the field of water resources and power is equally true in other segments of our economy. \\'e are demoralized by an indecent competition. Each one denounces gov­ernment handouts and privileges for the other fellow - but maintains that his special privilege is for the "general welfare." The slogan of many of us seems to be, "beat the other fellow to the draw" - i.e., "draw out of the pub­lic treasury more than you put in, be­fore someone else gets it." The result is inevitable - more and more power is being transferred from the individual and the states to the centralized government, frequently at the request of the states t11cmselves! The go,·crnor of the state of \Vashing­ton, in a recent address to the 1\ ational :\Iunicipal League, expressed grave concern over the transfer of power which he said results from federal handouts, and which presages the ulti­mate destruction of the states. \Vhat has become of our vaunted sovereign states, our states' rights, and the fear of our founding fathers of an all-powerful centralized government which is neither cognizant of the local customs of the citizens of the states nor sympathetic with t11eir hopes and aspirations? \Vhcn states come to Washington with hat-in-hand as sup­pliants, they become, in effect, wards of the government. In return for a meager portion of their own wealth, they must relinquish a large measure · of their so,·crcignty. What should we do? We have the answer in that historic statement by George l\lason and Thomas Jefferson, which was included in the Virginia Bill of Rights, and which was the foundation of our Declaration of Inde­pendence: " o free government, or the blessing of liberty, can be prc­sen ·ed to any people but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, tern- Page 8 our stated aims and 011r specific ac- protection. But if freedom is to ing, p; tions. T believe that moral improve- all special privileges must go! ism. E ment must precede material improi:e- Third- Of the powers that rell1•1 Nor: ment. Let us recall the admonition: govcrnnwnt, let us return as Pon th~ "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God as possible to the states. For o 1928 h and Ilis righteousness and all these local level, the people will ~· ot ju things shall be added unto you." to apply more critical scnit11 ecau the acts of their go,·ernment '1 ecau Fourth - Above all, let us reso!l·e omi11 never again will we yield to tlJI air { duction of the government p•1 ~ fonn. who comes amongst us o ·on't "bread and circuses," paid for sociali our own money, in return fof Hav sowrcign rights! drcn 1 These measures which I c01Jl ollcg1 RETURN DECISIONS TO PEOPLE \Vhat specific steps should we take? I be!ieve that neither I nor anyone else, no matter how exalted his posi­tion, can determine for 165 million people their day-to-day economic and social decisions concerning such mat­ters as wages, prices, production, as­sociations and others. So I propose that these decisions, and the problems connected therewith, be returned to the people themselves. This could hr done in four steps, as follows: First- Let us stop this headlong rush UNDE:RWOOD • UNDERWOOD The abundance of raw materials, fertility of soil, and temperate climate of the U. S., typified by this fruit grove, are not as important as the spirit of freedom in maintaining a position of world leadership. to you will require bold actioil· 1 their 1 who take up the gage of battl• an al he the real pioneers of our n¢t. ~each~ frontiersmen of the last half 0 now1 twentieth century. \Ve arc, inH'' d~ch I a great moral crisis which will iscar mine the issue between freed0 bod), the individual or slavery to thef ettfler Let us here recall the words o ro t idcnt Sam Houston in his rnes·~ tovcn the First Congress of the Rcp11 ,\dee Texas, l\lav 1, 1837: "Those ,vhr~sc tend for li"berty must be prcP'll1~t1eri endure privation." 'It' Io ttgeor), At the close of the Const1 . he "~ Convention, Benjamin Fran~!111 and p dieted that the federal union · Th only end in despotism, as other place have done before it, when the f ~duca shall become so corrupt as to erty, i despotic government, being ill · and c1 of am other." more An~! tlw late David Starr l Thfj former Presidt•nt of Stanford rt o sity, reminded us of our dut)' i11 party. words: "Docs history ever rel mu.ni. self'? It always docs if it is tfl' pai ty to~). Hit doe.; not, ~ve are dc•1l~ sa!~c with history but with a mere sion of incidents. Like causes 1 11 like effects just as often as 1 11 • R "\Jr c 11 oosc to test t Il ('m. . . IIo W 101 fro'"ll'l" "l the republic endure? So Joli;~ b"'• 1 ideas of its founders rcmtll11 nant." FACTS Fon ~r 'Ews, Fcbr11or1 SOCIALISM ertake at 0~!l H:\ VE KNOW:\' admitted thien's, 1t10n of Jn• 11 kidnappers and murderers, admit-rs of go'<T t ted embezzlers, athei-.ts, "ifc-e _repeal o 1 beaters and dog-poisoners. But I've •h1ch we a.& ever known a person who admitted e a ver} th !o being a Socialist! And yet socialism y pressure .,1 a bigger menace to America than fight to rct,. ommunism. Jly privil~g~~ . \lillions of Americans arc prcach­frccdom is 1 ~ng, practicing and voting for social­ges must go. ism. But they call it something else. ers that rcnl~ Norman Thomas ran for President 1s return as on the Socialist ticket six times. In states. For ~ 1928. he got 267,420 votes. In 19!8, he eople will l". ot Just a little oYer half that manv. ·ritical scruUC ecause socialism had lost its appeal? ~o,crnment '', eca.use Norman Thomas \\·as a poor let us resoh 0 mmee? No. Because the New and we yield to t air Deal took over most of his plat­vernmcnt p•u1 fo~. And because Americans just angst us o~ \ 01.1 t .vote for socialism - if it's called ses," paid for. socialism. in return fo d Have you read the books your chil-rc> n arc studying in high school or which I coo\ hoHegc? The socialists have wormt•d bold actiOil· t cir way mto the schoolroom, too. In ~age of battl< ai~ alarming ~umber of. cases, the ·rs of our a~' te,ich~r is a socialist, knowingly or un­te last half ' nlwm~ly. And the textbooks contain \V c arc, in tfl' ~c 1 tlungs as this: "Religion should s which will discar~! supernaturalism" (belief in tween freedO od), a socialistic economic system is Javery to thr etter than a competitive on(>," "the I 'the words of profit motive is evil," "a welfare-state 1 in his rne''' overnment i~ desirable." For in­of the Rep11b t.inee, a soe1ologv textbook lJC'ing 7- "Those ,,.Ji• i~sed .in high schools entitled "The 1;st be preP'Jll· tencan \Vay of Life" says our form I government "is a combination of a tl Constiti1 1°tt~!·y and a Famine" which will not ~e F ankliC ie l true dcmocracv" until security 11nm ~· n ". anc plenty "arc givrn to the masses." lcral unio 1 r The socialists seem to want to re­tism, as ot ie 1iJllace "the faith of our fathers" with it, when the Pclucational crusades to eliminate pov­corrupt as. t~ ~rty, Hl-hl'alth, war, racial segregation mt, being Jfl ·Incl cnml'. To thl'm religion is nothing ore than social work. )avid Stnrr l Th<' Socialist partv of America is a of Stanford . sort of prep school of the Com1~unis't of our dut)' 111 parl)_'. Thousands of Aml'rican Com­tory ever rel' unists got their start in tlJC' Socialist )CS if it is tfl1 p,iSty .( a!1cl vice versa). :, we are (\e•1'1, sam· oec i·a l.its.m and communism hwe the 1 . ' 'ti ,1 rnerc · mi ia goals: seizure - bv ballot WI l ~ . )I · Like causes I f Jll" 0 s o ten as R \fr A l l 1 · nc rrson is cc itor of Fann and m .. , Ilo\\1 Joi :;:~~· \ ma!(atn<'. 1:~is editorial is .. rc~rintcd ? S )on!! "' t .)~'- '° 11mn, Straight Talk, '-'o,·cm- 11rc 0 ·0 ' ' ·">:'), ISS11C. idcrs rcrn:iJ FAcTs Fonn1 '\'Ews, Febrnary, 19.)6 By Any Other Name By TOM ANDERSON* or bullets as tlle case may be - of ke7 industries and services. As David Lil­il'nthal, TV A's former boss, said: "Those who control energ) control people." Electric power usually comes first. Then steel, medicine, banks, fuel, food, transportation. The government can do it all "cheaper." SOCIALISM: COMMUNISM WITHOUT BRAINWASHING Socialism and communism have the following three main things in com­mon: 1. State ownership and control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange. 2. State planning of production (in­stead of a free supply-and-demand, profit system). And control of prices and wages. 3. Elimination of personal incomes derived from rent, interest and profit. To establish those three principles it is necessary for bureaucrats to lake over the running of ever) home in the nation. Housewives arc told "hat they can buy, and the price they can pay. \Vhen profit-making is eliminated, consumers-choice goes with it. If private incomes from rent, profit and interest are abolished, then it is up to the state to furnish individual incomes in the form of wages, salaries, pensions, allowances and fees. These are dished out of a central trough by mastermind planners and rationed out bv a swarm of bureaucrats. ·"Production for use instead of for profit" means regimentation and en­slavement of workers and industrial­ists alike. SOMETHING FOR EVERYBODY - REPUBLICAN STYLE Even ~Ir. Eisenhower came out with a socialized medicine plan he called "federal reinsurance." It would extend some sort of health and hospi­talization insuran e to some of the 60,000,000 Americans not now cov­l'red. Under till' administration's "non­socializcd" plan the federal govern­ml'nt would reinsure (guarantee for a fee) up to three-fourths of the in­Sl'lrance of prh·ate organizations against abnormal losses. Something for e,·cn bodd Insurance for the in­surable ;md the uninsurable. Guaran­teed Annual Profits for the insuranct companies. Debts for the grandchil­dren. And votes for the administra­tion. SOCIAL GAINS - BOUGHT BUT NOT PAID FOR All the monev paid into Social Se­curity is spent by the gon'rnment as fast as it's taken in. '\one of us has any assurance that we'll ever get any of the money we and our employers have paid in - unless the people are willing to tax themselves to pay us "·hen we reach tlw retirement age. Actually, most of our "social gains" have been hought hut not paid for. \Ve'rc willing to let following genera­tions do that - if tlwv can. Our secur­ity is their insecurity.' For every ounce o[ security we bu) and charge to them, they'll lose a pound of freedom in return. The British Trades Union Congress declared that, if nationalization "re­mains restricted to a limited number of industril's and scr\'ices, the full ad­vantage of social ownt•rship "'ill lw lost." Once the go"ernment owns sev­eral key industries, others must inc\'i­tablv be taken over. Throughout historv it has been the same - the people trade the right to handll' their own affairs to the gov­crnmrnt, for handouts. B;t hv bit the planners take more and more control and ta\cs. The t:r,payers do the p:w­ing and the politicians do the spcncl­ing. Finally, police state measures must be applied to tlw people - and the totalitarian dictatorship takes O\'Cr l'\'C'rything. Socialism and communism arrive at the same ends, though not at the saml' time nor in the same way. Socialism is creeping reYolution. It's communism with a slow-burning fuse. But in till' end, .both result in dictatorship ... in dommat1on of the individual bv the state ... in the destruction o[ 1:cprt'­sentati\' e go\'ernment. \\'hcther "e call it communism. wclfnrism or socialism, it leads to the same thing: ruinism. EXD Page 9 ·--~~~'V. .. ..._ . --- ( ( ------ - - - (ot~J~ By ESTHER JULIA FiH Futup lini, leade1 their claim1 ca nee Va! E\pre horn Ce rm until This pain 'ision vas. likes spec in Ge Kni g p E ~·s i,t. J after sough Visible in many af the works of "modern art" is the hand of the masters of communism. To appraise this type of art as Eggheadian is to lose sight of its true intent and purpose, and to ignore its deliberate perversion. orld The, and · a Carne Pi eto helpc. Russ i1 livPd . I~ THE STORY, "The Emperor's Clothes," by Hans Christian An­derson, the Emperor, stark naked, marches proudly down the street be­tween rows of his people. The admir­ing crowds murmur their appreciation of his beautiful new robes, their soft coloring, and their magnificent tex­ture. Two thieves pretending to be tailors had convinced the Emperor that they could weave for him the most beautiful robe in the whole world, but that the cloth could only be seen by wise and intelligent people. With huge sums of money obtained from the gullible and vain Emperor, they pretended to weave these beau­tiful new textures. So skillful had they been in convincing the palace retain­ers that failure to appreciate th<'ir handiwork would brand one as having no taste, that not a single courtier had dared raise his mice to protest against what was obviously a swindle. So, while the gullible Emperor marched down the street naked, the perpetra­tors of the hoax rolled on the palace floor in helpless laughter at the suc­cess of their scheme. If the beloved Danish wea,·er of children's fairy talcs were alive today , he would he astonished to see that his delightful fable has been takpn over literallv b\ swindlers in the field of so-called "modern art." Herc we find ,m identical parallel-the perpetrators of the hoax of "modern art" have gen­erallv convinced the gullible that fail­ure to appreciate their new forms of ,1rt expression brands one as hopeless­!~ unintelligent and behind the times. In fact, the situation is almost identi­cal in that blank canvas is actually exhibited as art! This may sound very funny, but the sickening story of decadence, perver­sion, and revolutionary purpose be­hind the introduction of modern art to America is far from humorous. So­called "modern art" had its origin in socially sick ancl decadent European art circles before ti.le first World \Var. From them sprung Cubi!tm, Dadaism, Futurism, Symbolism, Expressionism, etc. In the social fermen t that was to produce communism, fascism, and nazism, there arose artis ts who plotted to use art as a means of power over the masses. Since its inception, "mod­ern art" has been revolutionary, not in the s-ense of bringing new beauty and craftsmanship to the world, hut in the deliberate turning of the human mind from whafis true, good, and beautiful to the contemplation and worship of ugliness, disorden·d \is ions of mad­ness, "social protest," and the use of esoteric and occult symbols for reality. All over Europe the revolutionaries, the dabblers in the occult, and the demented O\·erturned the traditional forms of beauty and art. They boldly proclaimed thcmselvcs the new elite of the world of art. They formed into tight little groups, issued manifestos, and tirelessly promoted their "new" art forms. In 1920 the Dadais ts beld their most spectacular e\hibition under the direction of \lax Ernst, the arfot. The entrance to the exhibition, which was hl'ld in \lunich, was through a public urinal. A young gi rl dressed in'' as if for her first Cmnmunion, r\ obscene poems in a loud voice. . \ s ture of this early Dacia exhibitiol' ni st, an aquarium full of blood-red fli Ill'\\ ly which wt•re an alarm clock, a I ment. hair, and an arm carved in ;~?ll~(' Visitors a lso were invited to t<t K. axe and chop a t a large block of' .tnoth The genera l impression crcnt• ~iron this insane exhibit was to convin' .. / 1 (' I ordinary visitor that ht', too. h•1d toic~;e mad. Indeed, some of th , ds1W .. ·l< I . I [ 011t1 ·1sn1 go mac m t w sense o ·to anger. Thp, seized the axe <ll1~ 1 r P ccec! cc I to c- 11 op cI o wn t I1 e w IJ O Je t,1(·'n 1n c.x hibition before the police M' ,,;~\ The Dadaists were ela tt•d - the 19.jl proved their point that the 11 - ' world was in a state of com11Icte rnet l() \\·~ ness. ,, K Tlw Dadaists wen• not alone tcth· leashing perversion and m;uln< K· the world. fn June of 1936 th• .ar ;tr realists held an e\ hibition in [,f int h The noted British novelist, J. J3. ' lc-v, revic•wed it for a Londo11 Ile said in part: Tlw Sttrn•a1ists star~d for viok11 1\ m·urotit 11nrl·a~on. ~1 lu ·y art.'. trtJ · cadent. ' 011 catch a g:l1111psc of tht·111 of tlw c.lc:.·c.·[wning twilight 1 barbari~m that may .\f>Clll hlot t sky until at Ja..,t hum1rnity fin<~ in anoth<.'f long night. ... Prophetic words written · 11 twenty Years ago! Part and 11j1 those helping to bring on "~ 1' night" were the following :irll' J. T . 13aargc•ld, founder of th• ists, who he lped establish the(. nist part) in the Hhineland. JULIA Filippo T. ;\farinetti, founder of thl' Futurists. Ile was a friend of ;\lusso­lini, and was proclaimed the cultural leader of the Italian Fascists alter their seizure of power. :\larinetti pro­claimed: ",\Jan has no more signifi­cance than a stone." Vassily Kandinsky, leader of the E\pressionists. Kandinskv who was h,on1 in Russia, studied· ix1inting in Ccrmany. Ile was a mediocre painter until he discovered "expressionism." This theory of painting was that pai.nting in a trance would produce '1s1ons of the unconscious on the can­vas. This was supposed to produce a like state of trance on the part of the ~peetator. The followers of Kandinsky •n Germany were known as the Blue Knights. In 1914 he returned to Hus-p EL·si,1. He was a friend of Trotsky, and after the revolution he and his pals sought to dominate the Hussian art world. For a while thev suceecckd. They created their owi1 workshops and art organizations. Kandinskv be­came the director of the ;\Juset;m of Pictorial Culture in :\loscow. Ile helped establish museums throughout R11ss1a. But his triumph was short­lh ·ed. ·I dressed in 11 ARTFULNESS OF LENIN :01nmunion. r< l loud voice: 1 . \ sn~arter an? far greater Commu­hch exhibitIOl1 n1st, \ · I. Lenm, was watch111g the j blood-reel Ot ue~vly developing Bolshevik art move­. 1 clock a Jo me nt. ;\laster of revolutionan tc•ch­: 1 ~arvecl' in 11 11 iqucs himself, Lenin saw in 'the art m. v1. te c I to wl1(>f Kand1nsk, and his associat"s 1·i1st 1 • • ,. • ar 'e block of 1 ln?t Wr \\'ay of ~u bverting the massc•s Jrcgs s1. on cre•1. t• Tthh1e01 1Hg h .d 1stort1on and. neuroticis· rn · · .. to con''"'' . uss1an masses which Lenin had ~ti~e too. h••d '"hosC'n to conquer for socialism, had · f th • , bittr to face cold. hard, reality - ncuroti­- 0 . c [ 0 ,,n ·ism and decadent distortions were• ds ense o or [Jc• 1 . 1 f 1, . 1 thl' ·t\l' ,1110 I . op e outs1c P o 'ussia w 10m \Vil th~ \\'hok. )"11'.n hoped to soften up and dc•mor­thc Joli er ,1r1' 1 •z.c .. For later conquest. Kandinsk~ , 1. tl 1 _ thf • .ts kicked out of H.ussia by Lenin in - c '1I cc the .· .L~P-l · '· incl ti lP E xpress1· orn·s t Je acJ e r re-nt ~mt pictc urnc•cl to Gcrmanv. A frw years later tc 0 com w "}ls brought to the United State's lone >~ Katlwrinc Dreier an aging hut ere not a tcti\'r I ft · ' I .1c111e • P -wmgpr from Brooklvn. m, afm l 9l'3ll6• th• . K. '·.1 nt 1r· ns k·y , f ormer cultural c.o mmis-l(. 0 . • • ·in [,of'a1 111 BolsllC'vik Russia, helirvc it or d11h1ti~>n J n. f lot. hc·camc vice r1rcsiclcnt of the So­novehst. ·" or a Loncl011 By Bernard Rosenthal. To quote from this article: "What more subtle way could be devised to destroy children's faith in religion than to show Christ on the cross as a gigan­tic insect? Nothing is more des­picable in 'modern art' than the vulgarity and ugly distortion in religious themes." ciete Anonyme in ew York two years later. This was an international asso­ciation set up in 1920 by the same Katherine Dreier for thP promotion of the study of "progressh·p art" in Amer­ica. TllC're is no reason to helipvc that Kandinskv, who had failed to estab­lish his rc;volutionary art form in H.us­sia, hacl ahando11C'cl his ideas or plans when he got to this country. In a speech entitlC'd ";\lodrrn Art Shackled to Communism," Congress­man Dondero of 1\lichigan said: (left I Joseph Hirsch pointing occupied a place of honor in the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. Mr. Hirsch's record of Communist-front affiliations did not interfere with the govern­ment commissions he received. The Sodcte Anonyme according to the American Art Annual was first organized as the \lus<"um of ~lodcrn Art. The ~luscum of \lodcrn Art found­<' d in 1920, officNed in 192:3 and for ymrs thereafter hy Kandinsky, Russi.111 Comrnissar of the "Isms" l)('conws cr}·s· talizrd in 1929 as the present \luseum of ~lodcrn Art. As an l'ncl11ring link between th<' two, Alfred 11. Barr, Jr., member of tlw Board of Directors of Socit-te Anonymc, is thP Director of the present \luseum of \lodern Art. The way was open for the virus of the foreign-spawnpd "Isms" to he in­jPcted into thP bloodstream of Amer­ican culture, and it was. Books writ­ten h\' or about the INclers of "soeial protPst" in the art "·orld "erP i~uh­lislwd or sold ll\ the ;\luseum of \loclern Art. The ~\rt critics of lihpntl ancl radical magazines praised to tlw skies the daubs and monstrosities of the "npw school" artists. They c>m­plo, eel a gibberish C\'C'll more !,ncom­prehensihle than the> alle.gecl pamt­ings" the" so la\'ishh praised. E\'C'll more faniastie "ere the prices asked for somC' of this ahsti«1ct junk Pa,ge 11 PORTRAITS OF "ISMS" Abstract art offered the Commu­nists a quick route to fame and for­tune. It dispensed with the long train­ing and talent tkmanded hy tradi­tional painting. A few daubs of paint on a canvas called "ahstrnc:t art" could he boosted and pushed as great art. .\!any of the ne\\'ly rich were eager to emulate an older generation of mil­lionaire art patrons . .\lost of the great works of art of past centuries have been acquired h~ museums or fami-lies of great wealth. Therefore, it be­came tremendously chic to purchase works of unknown artists and to be­~ ome a patr~!1 and defender of the new culture. On the other hand, the average American under no such delusions de­rived no pleasure or inspiration from the new art forms. The spectator felt uncasv and bewildered looking at paintings that conveyed neither beautv nor sense. Nevertheless, like the Emperor's courtiers they were eas­ily co"'ed into silence because they feared the ridicule which the so-called "critics" and defenders of the new "Isms" would heap upon them. This was not an American art move­ment. At practically all of these Amer­ican exhibitions, even today, the names of the same leaders of European mod­ern art appC",\r m·er and over again - Salvador Dali, i\lax Ernst, Pablo Pi­casso, \liro, Paul Klee, Tanguy, Cha­gall, De Chirico, ct al., ct al. The wedge of confusion having been drh·en home, a new phase was started. William Z. Foster, veteran Communist leader, made this signi­cant admission in the New Masses in 1946: There must be a clear understanding that art is a weapon in the class stnig­glc. '>ot only is art a weapon, but a \·t•ry potrnt one as wC'll. \torcover, ris­ing revolutionary social classes instinc­tively rl•alizc the importance of art as a social \Vt.•apon and have always forged their own ;rt and usc'C! it to challenge that of the existing ruling class. The Communists had started to organ­ize and exploit artists in the early 1930's by setting up fronts along cul­tural lines. One of the most notorious was the John Heed Club, named in honor of an t'arlv American Com­munist, John Heed,' who had died in Hussia shortly after the Bolshevik seiz­ure of pO\\'Cr and had been buried with full Hed honors in tho Kremlin wall. Also active in 'cw York was the Artists Union. Organized in 1933 hy unemployed artists worRing on Fed-eral Arts Projects, a part of the Fed­cnil Helicf Yrogram, it was super-mili­tant. On \lay 1st, the Communist hol­iday, it called upon all artists "to come out into the streets, to don chisel and brush, and march shoulder to shoul­der with his fellow workers toward the future." SUBSIDIZED DAUBING Rog ht: pointed Rincon pood $; this OS citizen! hearing was no1 port of 33 c,, connec1 remove Left: "Seated Woman," the work of Pablo~ Bel . so. There's no doubt regarding the portY,a bla 0 ;· tion of t.his artist, who once remarked:.' I.,. this" t 1 ~0"!1mun1st and my pointing is Communist r world~ 1ng. ments 1 Right: William Gropper was present in 1~ an international Communist conference on Kharkov, Russia, set up to bring American ~ under Comintern control. Years later, Gropper's Communist.front record with ~ or more affiliations, he was commissione.1 the above mural for the New Interior But ~ Washington at on admitted fee of bt $4,000 and $5,000. These founders and early rne ~ of the John Heed Clubs and A Union can be found today as fa', and prominently displayed nrt!i.1 many museums throughout the v1 States. The names of these saflle ists appear over and over a!(J 1 sponsors or supportc1:s of litcrall~ ens of Communist fronts durio~ Ye past 20 years. f an a William Gropper was one o busio founders of the John Heed Ch1 voh1 well as a founder of Artists Eq'11 Dcspi 1947. According to Congress1m~O recorc dero, "Artists Equity Associat10° lack o practically all the notorious Hcd' P<;r n1 in the country." Gropper was Jl1 • ifth in 1930 at an international Con11~ 1 as : conference on art in Kharko1', l' l,id r set up to bring American artists 1 111d fi Comintern control. The sabot,1!!1 ie c111 American art wa& the direct o0 n \\'; of this conference. 1 n a cable to, ~ hai cow in 1932 Gropper reported · · th S11viet masters the accomplish1J1~ 1 ain American Communists in the st for world socialism: I ha1·c lwld exhibitions of caii' In : drawings and paintings on the ioll~ lfty.fl ist war and th1· defense of the . none• Union throughout the \\'est Co: . 0 k · the Unitt'tl Stall's like Bcrkrlch r S Francisco and Los Angeles in Ca 1 ' ·am1 and in gallcri!'s in t\ew York Col 'line present l am at work on a mu'·'' V ront ing to be exhibited in the \tu>' lro Modern Art, whicl1 thousands of~ )t fp visit wt•ckly an<l l sh:dl rcgistl'r 1 11 a C, test by 1•1posing the war plot " lood the Sovi!'t Union in this painton tnd ii \Voth Hevohotionary Crcetin~5 • ; ts William Gropper. he w This is another of Bernard Rosenthal's work. These faceless pinheaded characters are sup­posed to represent "The American Family." It decorates the new Los Angeles police station and cost the city $10,000. These artists were primarily in­terested in art as Communist and rev­olutionary propaganda. Federal and State art projects set up to alleviate unemployment and dbtress offered wonderful opportunities to get paid, with taxp<lyers' money, for daubing revolutionary propaganda on public property walls. They violently resisted all c~n~~ols, which they called "cen­sorship. Cropper's Communist-front 0 tbout with some 60 or more affilt".1 A second only to that of Hock111 ~ heel with well over a hundred. )'et f \ dmi the gall to tell the Senate nan nent Subcommittee on 1m·c> 11 in 1953: FACTS FOl\U\[ Page 12 Right: Anton Refregicr, the artist who P~1nted the widely discussed murals in the R1~con Post Office in Son Francisco, was paid $26,000 of the taxpayers' money for t~i~ assignment. Protests from outraged c1t1zens finally forced o congressional hearing on these slanted murals, but he was not even called to testify as to what port of this fee was diverted to any of the 33 Communist fronts with which he was connected. The fight to have these murals removed is still raging. k f Pablo~ e.wor 0 rty 0 8 elaw: Certain modern "artists" e.xhibit ding the Pd. 111 blank canvas as art. Their conception of ce remarke ·'st this type of art is to portray on unreal 1g is Communi World b~ subtracting fragments from frog~ ments till nothing is left. ros present in 19, st confcrenc~ 011 - bring American lli . Years later,~ t record with as commissione.0 1 d ~ew Interior Bub,~ itted fee of You sec I am an artist. 1 am primarily f nn artist. I nm not in with this poltical r \Vas one O business that you people arc all in~ >hn Recd C\ll vohcd in. 1f Artists Eqt11 . Despite this long Communist-front Congressn1t~O 'r ·cord and his protests of complete ty AssociatJO~ lack of political knowledge, \Jr. Grop­otorious Hed 'per nevertheless convenientlv took the ro )per was pr Fifth Amendment when asked if he ia~ional Con1f1 •as a c.ommunist. He admitted he in Kharko,, fl had ~ece1ved between four thousand e ·can artists 1 md fi"e thousand dollars for a mural '. ~he sabotJi!l he did. for the New Interior Building th direct oO~ n 'Vashmgton. When asked \•,hethcr 1 e .1 c-iblc to le had contributed any of tlus money ;:. ·re· orted : ·0 .the Communist party, Cropper ~.1 cco mpr)li·s hll'r igam took the Fifth Amendment. 1~ i1ists in the 5 n: WORKS OF WHOSE ART? iibitions of c~~ .. In 19-17 the State Department paid tings on the u'\ ifty-five thousand dollars of \'Our tax efcnsc of tic<> noncy for a collection of scYc.nl\ -nine . t/'1'. '~~5,L1rr~ · orks of art to be shown abroad as 'A~g~les in oht ':amples of American culture. At least 1 r\cw York ~· 1 111e of the conh·ibuting artists had ork. on" . "~';~:,. r?nt records. The project was quickly :d m the · f I" hopped when the then Sccrctarv of 1 thous·mds 0 't t C · sh:ill r<:gistcr 11 ) a e, .corge ;\(arshall, received a the war plot lood of protests from congressmen in this p.1int10 md indignant ci tizens. The \Var As­nary Crcclln~s. ' ts i\dministration later disposed of '" he whole collection for $5,5-11.-15, or 1munist-fro~t u tbout tl'n cents on the dollar. · more affih•1 1 A year later an "art gallerv on iat of Rock,''\ hee.ls'.' was set up to tour \'e.teran hundred. )cl f\dm1111 stration hospitals. Congrcss­the Scm1tct 1 nan Dondero exposed the front rec­tce on ln,·c> 'ACTS Font''! 'E" ·s, February, 19.56 ords of seventeen artist whose works were included in the project. The sin­ister purpose behind such an other­wise harmless idea was to give these Communist-front artists a sort of "patriotism by association" halo in that their modernistic daubs had pre­sumably benefited recuperating veter­ans. They could also later claim that thev had at least been inferentially "cleared of any taint of subversion" by virtue of the fact that the United States government had displayed their works in veterans hospitals. You have to get up awfully early to outsmart Communists. The Communists are tireless in boosting each other's products. They are also highly adept at infiltrating art juries. Rccentlv the National Council for U. S. Art announced the first com­petition for art work to decorate the United 'ations Building in New York. The ten jurors include at least three with Communist-front records, Leon Kroll, Paul ~lanship, and William Zorach. Six of the eighteen members of the Visual Arts Panel of the U. S. National Committee of U ESCO are connected with Artists Equity. This is a cozy "you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours" arrangement. Small wonder that so many young and struggling artists go left. They are smart enough to realize that with such obvious infiltration, and in some cases control, of art juries and panels by notorious left-wingers, anti-Commu­nist painters do not stand much of a chance. For example, Anton Refregier was selected from eighty-six other contestants to paint the Hincon Post Office murals in San Francisco. There werC' three artists on the jury; two who 'oted for Hcfregier had long front rec­ords. Outraged protests from patriotic groups fina lly forcC'd a congressional hearing on these slanted murals. Hc­fregier himself was not C'Vcn cal led to tcstifv as to what part of the twcntv­six thousand dollars of taxpayers' money which he received was divert­ed to any of the Communist fronts with which he was connected. Despite the protests of large groups of patrio­tic citizens, the objectionable murals painted by a Communist sympathizer are still on the walls of a U. S. govern­ment building. Who benefited by the selection of Anton Refrcgier as the artist? "AND A LITTLE CHILD SHALL LEAD THEM" In the story of the Emperor s clothes, it was the voice of one small child winch exposed the whole care­fully built-up hoax. "But he has noth­ing on!" exclaimed the child. The Em­peror, realizing that the child spoke the truth, rushed back to his palace to turn out the rascals who had made such a fool of him. The clear-sighted vision of small children is apparent]\ not given to the blind worshipers of "modern art." Consider the reply of Stanlev Marcus, chairman of the Dal­las ~!~1seum Board, to a resolution of the Dallas Public Affairs Luncheon Club. The resolution protestC'd the ex­hibition of works bv Communist and pro-Communist artists at the local museum. "Tommyrot!" sneered Mr. larcus. Christianitv is todav the main tar­get of world. communism. \Vhat more subtle way could be devised to de­stroy children's faith in religion than to show Christ on the cross as a gigan­tic insect? Nothing is morC' despicable in "modern art" than the vulgarity and ugly distortion in religious themes. The real thinking behind these sac­rilegious paintings is given away by a cri tical reYiew in the Communist Daily Peoples World of April 6, 1955. Criticizing Hico Lcbrun's "Crucifix­ion" series, the rC"YiC'\V says: In attrmpting to dC'picl man~s inhu­rnanity to man tll<'n' was a dec.:p and important fallacy. The carpenter who Page 13 This piece of sculpture was done by Jacques Lipchitz, and is featured at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The character with the curious bulges is Prometheus. ere<"tcd tht• cross, the soldiers who rent the garnH:nts, and the crowds who jeered and mocked were all portrayed in unsparing horror. But tht.• fon:cs \vhich put thcsc exctutioncrs into move­ment, the instigators of nurnkind' s most notoriou~ execution of a radical thi11kcr, no\vhcre were these forces shown. Can you believe it? Jesus Christ, not the hope and Saviour of all man­kind, but merely a "radical thinker." This is hate art. The purveyors of it have their vile works exhibited in museums and private galleries throughout the country. They arc praised. financially supported, and de­fended by the very class that the~ plot to destroy. The Daily Worker of April In the interest of allowing space for the presentation of any opposing vi<.·w­points regarding modern art, Facts Forum Seres wrote \Ir. Jerry B) watt·rs, Director of the Dallas ~l11scum of Fine Arts, a letter which read in part as fol­lows: "If you would like to write an article C\pressing a difft.'rcnt \'fr·wpoint rt'gard­ing the modem art which \liss p,.]s criti­ciz< ·s, '"''C would be most happy to com­mission the writin~ of such an artic:lc. to appear in either the S<lme issue or the fol­lowing ~larch issue of our m.u~a1inc. If you h;.\\"C not read the article in question, we will be glad to send you a reprint of it." We quote from his reply: 10, 1955, carried an article on the Jack Levine show exhibited in the Whitney .\luscum of Art in New York. The fol­lowing excerpts are significant: I le paints dead souls in living bodies with de,ast.1ting power and insight. Ile paints men and women who would stifle hum~tnity, sli.trvc mankind, brutalize the world for their own parasitic, selfish, gre<'<ly ends. lie divests these people of their oull'r g;.trnwnts of wealth, position, and respectability and e'poses the sham that CO\'ers the leering evil, the gre<•cl, the corrosion of upp ·r-class immorality and sclf-indulgt•nce .... llis tl'thniqu<.• in dt.·picling d<.·ath in life, evil in human form is close to per­fection .... The painting, "The Trial," has de<.·p politi<:al signifitan<:(' toda)'· as w1t<.:hhunts and hyc;teria ha\'C made a REBUTTALS INVITED "It is mo'it tt:111pt111g to suggest some alt<·rnatt:s to th(' artidc's opinions . .. ·· 11ow('vcr, thl· .trtidc is prt.'()(.'<:upicd with various attad.s on modern art. Since the institution which l serve as dircdor is int('n-st<-d in all kinds of 'good' art ( whl'tlwr tmclitional or 'modern') we sec no point m t.11..in~ sidt's against ourselves. "The artic:le dirC'tts many accusations at the \luse11m of \lodt'rn Art and its director. Perhaps you should give that institution and otlwrs devoted exclusively to mockrn art, such as till' Cugg('nheim \fusl•mn, an opportunity to rt•ply. I fur­th(' r su_ggest that you rcqtl('St the l'<litors of tlw -~rts or th" tlrt \1·1n to r('p)y to [\liss Pd's] .1rticlt', that is if you arc sin­cerdy inten:skd in printing a rebuttal. 1110<.:kery of courtroom 1·usticc . .. · Throughout the cxhi lition it is u)I. clear what jack Levine hates. Ile himself, "Those I love I simpl) Id· out. A painter should do what he best." lie has created unforgettable f cxprcssi\'c of <·orruption that gro\~S decays, of hn>0cntical souls w1cl power today. Pope Pius Xll summed up the 11 situation recently when he spoke exhibition of the works of Fra A ico, famed 15th Century Flore painter of saints and angels. His ness extolled the work of Fra Ang who had painted an ideal worl angel-like men, and then said: If the artistic expression turns inst. to a false, empty, and unclean s which d"forms tht• designs of the ator if instead of ele\'ating the Jllll and 1 licart to noble sentiments it sl incite the more vulgar passions, it 1n find acclaim or aeccptance by Slb even if only because of novelty, '' is not always of merit. . But such art would degrade it. denying its own principal and es~~ asp<·t·t, and would be neither un1' nor perpetual as is the spirit of ni~n which it is addressed. A few years ago, Colonel \\'~ R. Kintner wrote a book entitled TH Front ls Everywhere. Ile dernoo; d, ed beyond cavil that secret C? pl nists and their sympathizers ~ damn1 midst are waging total war ag'.1\1 cross-s every hour of the day and n1g point. every level and stratum of our so- accepf - religious cultural political, xperit nomie, soclal, moral,' and intellf' Would This constant corrosive attack set manag destroy our religion, our honie intere our national unity, our histo~t oes f traditions, our very will to res;~ newsp, live. In this titanic struggle supern world no sector of human thot1 : and of activity is overlooked by the ~1 large. of Moscow. So, remember tht1 The in the museums, "Art is a weJl"countr the class struggle." rs anc -- (J timer This article first appeared in th~ ~ the ur J~.55, issue of The American LeP.10 legi I I zme. s a amiJy pie Sp collect tion. T he pay "A comment I have regardinl( d ;1;rve~ article's .reference to this. institut1o~r e fa\ the cut !me 11ncl<·r a parntrng by I Jir. )f pra1 th.it this painting was loam·d to our'.· To n srnm by the 1\ational Aeacl<·my of ~r usine of "\,.w York, a most patriotic an< ·tself . servative inslitutio_n, nftcr hnv1n1! rt ne t J ct'ivt·d a third-prize in an impO ,1 Il t national exhibit at the ~letropolitao lressec seum of Art in New York, another. ef' e.sire ncnt American institution. This vcf} 1 '.lhsh t tinent information is no/ given tdt Iniqu reader, and I requPst that it h<' inclu 1 ~ins h If rebuttals are fortheominl( froo 1 T so11rees s11ggt'st"cl by \Ir. Jlywat"rs, ·~ ocl1 will he t'onsiclerecl for p11blic.1tio\! • ttncl near future issue of Facts Fonun • 1ed up the'' :n he spoke· ks of Fra A 1tury Flore angels. His ; of FraAng 1 ideal worl :hen said: sion turns inst d undcan s signs of the !vating the t1 1timcnls it shv passions, it u1r ----c..;: ptance by , Gene 1 R b of novelty, ,,·11 ra o ert W. Johnson Chairman of the Board, Johnson & Johnson, N'ew Brunswick, N. J. i~I degrade ii :ipal and csscc neither un1't: c spirit of nial' Colonel \~ Jook ent:itl 0 T HERE was a time whrn Commo- 1. Ile dernc°o dore. William H. Vanderbilt's ex-it secret .0 plosive remark "The public be ipat:luzers ~11' damned," represc;1ted a minority tal war ag_a\t cross-section of the business view­lay and nig O' P0 mt. Since that time the universally :um of our t accepted executive viewpoint has 1, pol!ticll~ :perienced a complete reversal. It , and 1ntc eC' ould be hard to find the general ive attack 5 e manager today who does not place the n, our ~1on1 . interests of his customer first. This 0~1r lusto;s: oes for the tiny candy store with will to resfol newspapers on the side to the great : struggle ~ supermarket and depa~tmcnt store, human th01 \ al nd of course for indusb·y small and ed by the J11 arge. ' nember th3~ The most powrrful people in our lrt is a we3 i country are the consumers-the work- ::is and the farmers, who are also con­ieared in t/1e 00 th;:iers;_ the stockholder-consumers; 1erican J,egio~ I . lmion leader-consumers and the J~~s ator who, believe it or not, has a ___.../ r.'le ily of c~ns~1n:iers. When these peo-p II sp~ak 111chv1dually, in groups or ti ectivcly, managcmrnt is all at:ten­h~ n. The executive not only listens - . pays a great price for rxploratory ·e regardin· .~ u '>hU rvfe .v, s m· t h e Ii ope that he can hear his institut10~h e a1_ntest murmur of dissatisfaction inting by l(ir 1 lt praise. o•·i ned to our To mr t ti · 1 f or' b . <' 11s O\'erwhelming control cac <.•my o 11s1n · . · . . ' patriotic and 1 "tself ~ss comprtes aggrcss1\'C'l) w1 thin after having~ 'll t 10 the hope that each managc­in an i1nr" ,1 en team may best intcr1Jret thr cx- \letropo 11• t..i n , JIr es·. sed ' anc l cvrn the subconscious 'ork, another ~ e1.sircs of the new dictator To ·1ccom-on. Th.i s vcrYto 1' l ts. h thi's· encl a mocl c'r n ··1 11d 'h r«C'lv not g1\'cn d 1n1qu , " ' ~ . .at it ll<' incl" ' His hie concept of executive policy h(·oming frofllt~ T n crrated. Ir. Bywaters. if . oday, the first consideration of publicat101\ line! corporate policy is the public octs Forum ' ACTs Fonu'\1 'Ews, February, 1956 ROBERT W. JOHNSON Management Listens TO the consumer, the customer. The mod­ern corporation knows its products must be good, and that it must strive to make them better, at lower cost. As part of this pattern, dealers and dis­tributors must make a fafr profit and orders must be filled promptly and accurately. Without distributor and buyer good will, there can he no busi­ness. The second responsibility of a sound business is to its workers, the men and women in its factories and offices. They must have a scn~e of security in their jobs. Wages must be fair and adequate, management just, hours short, and working conditions clean and orderly. Workers should have an organized system for suggestions and complaints. Foremen and department heads must he qualified and fair­minded. There must be opportunity for advancement for tl1ose who qual­ify, and each person must he treated as an individual, standing on his own dignity and merit. The third responsibility is to the prople who manage the business. :\lrn who have risen from the ranks - the executives of proven exprriencr and ability - have come to spell the differ­ence between success and failure in today's complex corporate sb·uchirC'. The fourth consickration and rc'­sponsihility of the going business of today is to the community in which it functions. In many communitirs a largr factory, store or insurancr com­pany is the principal somce of liveli­hood and taxes. In addition, the fami­lies of employre-consumC'rs for milrs CONSUMERS WORKERS EXECUTIVES COMMUNITIES STOCKHOLDERS around look to it for leaderslup in civic improvement, health standards and education. The modern corpora­tion has become inextricably involved in the welfare of the communities in which it operates. Herc is the birth­place - or deathbed - of public good will. The fifeh and last responsibility is to the many people who own the pres­ent- day corporate rnterprise - who risk the savings and buy its stock. In days of yore, when one man financed a company's start, he might have been characterized or caricatured as a bloated moneylender or, still worse, a "money changer" who should be "driven from the temples" in times of stress or depression. But in today's complex design of corporate finance, more than half our population has an interest in the stocks and bonds of our lrading industries, whether outright, or through the mrdium of invcsbnent trusts, insurance policies, savings bank deposits, etc. Among large and impor­tant owners of corporate stocks todav are the company's customers, the deaf­crs and distributors; the workers, forr­men, superintendents; the managers, and the people who live in the com­munities where it functions. T nus we ha,·c rrached a phase of corporate de,·clopmcnt where the ap­p111; ation of thr Golden Rule to all of these clements is trulv good business practice. Here is a m;w business con­cept, a nrw philosophy. It is a unique (C'm1li1111cd on Page 35) Page 15 A Radio Free Europe reporter (right) interviews an escapee from C:z:echoslovokia while his story is simultaneously recorded on tape for future broadcast. MISSION OF FREE EUROPE COMMITTEE (Excerpts from Annual Report of the Prr1ident of Free Europe Committee. Jn~ .. to the Diredor1 and )lember or the Committee.) l nf:'orporated in the tale of ~ew York in 1919. Fref' Euro1>e Committee is a member hip n .... O<'iation of Ameriean citi­zen .. ,,..ho belif''e that the people"I behind the Iron <~urtain - in Albania, Bulgaria, Czecho .. 10,akia. E!,lOnia, Jlungar}, l..ahin, Lithuania, Poland, Romania - are being held cnpti>e ngnin.i their will by the agenl~ of So' iet Rus .. iu who, for the time heinfit. rul(' O\f"r them. The mi"lsion oC }'rN" Euro1>e CommillN' i'" therefore to "'ork for lhf' freedom of the-.e peoples in order that the,· ma, one da) be able to creel ,remocratie in .. litution-.. of their 0\\11 choo .. ing and join \\ith the other peoples of Europe in estab(i .. hin1e n peaceful, fraternal and coopcrnlhe European con1- munit,. Thi~ mi-. ... ion is consonant "'ith lnited tales polic' a~ repentrdl, enunciated by Pre .. ident Ei .. enho,,..er and other members of hi-. Admini-.tration. It io, con~i"ltent al-.o .,,..ith thf' Bermuda declaration of Decem· her 1953 made joint ly b, th<' heac1-. of the Briti~h, Fren("h nncl Unitefl tate~ goH•rnmenh in tlH.'"lf' tl'rm~: H\'{·e cannot at'rept a-.. justified or permanent the pre~ent <lhi..,ion of Europ<'. Our hope i~ 1hat. in duf' ("Our-ie. peae('ful m('an~ ~ill bf' founrl 10 f'nnble the ('Olln t rie~ of Ea.;itern EuroJ>t' a,:ain to play their part a ... free nation~ in a frf'e Euro1>e." WutT,E\ II. llEP\ROSO'I Page 16 R\DIO Free Europe was estab­lished by the Free Europe Committee in December, 19-19, to conduct a campaign of psychologi­cal warfare against the Communist regimes of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, H.omania and Bulgaria. It is supported by the contributions of the American people to the Crusade for Freedom. H.adio Free Europe went on the air in Julr, 1950, "ith one mobile short­wave transmitter broadcasting a few hours a week to the countries. Now, with 29 powerful short and medium­wavc transmitters located in \Vest German} and Portugal, H.adio Free Europe programs are on the air more than 3,000 hours a week. The basic aim of H.adio Free Europe is to help the people behind the Iron Curtain in their struggle to regain their national freedom and individual liberties. The most effective weapon in this struggle is the truth, which is constantly uwcl to e\pose conditions within tlH' SO\ il't orbit that the Com­muni; ts prefrr to hide from the peo­ple. The truth is also used to spread dissent among the Communists tlwm­selves, thus disrupting party machin­er} and reducing its power over the peO[)lC'. To earn out its mission, H.adio FrC'C Europe C'stablished a nC'twork of five stations the \'oice of Free Czecho­slovakia, of Fr<'<' Hungan·, FrC'e Po­land, Free Homania ancl Free fiul­garia - ov<'r which exiles from these nations speak to their own country­m<' n. Radio Free Europe correspondents, force from Stockholm and Ilambur~ It to Istanbul, continued to int static t Russi newly-arriYed refugees from 1 the B Curtain countries. From all 0 I abo~ something of interest was C•' Polar about conditions in their to'' villages, popular sentiment .t' clt:~i the Communist rulers, radio h' tertai attitudes on democracy and th) matt( ican p<'ople, etc. A special dem refugee is the "defector," th: f tutioi nbt part} or regime offic1a , '"voi eyes ha vc been opened to the !; spea~ lent nature of the creed and gari~ prcssivc and inefficient chnf•' the n the system. of thi The e\iles who write and bl" ter oJ Radio Free Europe's progr·1 nich chosen on the basis of prof< in it~ skill and specialized knowlcd~ 15 arc the bPst t\\'ailable editor" r It !a ists, n<'wscastc•rs, actors, r111 ' ~al v PntC'rtain<'rs. Th<'y arc e:\pcrb Thi fiC'ld of labor, agriculture, cc' cecde r<'ligion, go,ernment, science', from affairs. \lany of them '"£ menu kno\\·n in th<'ir countries hr' gee f " t•n• forcc•d to flee from Co radio tyrann~ . Speaking to their co11 ; speak now as friends and patriots ~ ed, "1 able to forge a strong link Euro1 their people behind the JroO plain and the free world. Ji even Hadio Free• Europe is on 1 Wrote hours a day to its major t.irg I popul peting for list<'ncrs with ]0C• 1 it is stations hour bv hour. There becau tim<' to gh·e close attentio11 vak c, various problems of all sr~~ seap1 the population: workers. ' Free I vouth, \\'Omen, partv membe, k<'<'P<'rs, security police, tit' FACTS Font 'r Last month Facts Forum News began a presentation of a critical view of Radio Free Europe, the second install ­ment of which appears on page 23 of this issue. Here is RFE's own version of the effectiveness of the program. ltirihe Iron Curtain RADIO FREE EUROPE'S OWN STORY-Part 1 force~ and other special groups. u1cl Ham b ur -t t lt. is a private, not a governmental ·ut s ahon. It docs not broadcast to Soviet tinucd to 1 ugees from tr. Rthu ssia or East Germ,·rny, bt1t 011ly to •. From all O· e five Iron Curtain countries named crest was Jc• above. To three of those countries - in their to'' Po.land, .Czechoslovakia and Hungary sentiment t• - It delivers a full radio service in­lc ·s r idio b' cludi.ng programs of culture and en- J 1 ' ' I tllf terta1nmcnt as well as news editorhl IClA"lCY 'lll( , ' s;ccial !;. ~attcr, anti-Communist polemics, and ·fector" the emontrat1ons of the ethics and insti- g. ' ffici·'ll ~uhons of true democracv. Its five lmC 0 ' ' . " J pcnecI to tile 1 s1v> mcke·s arc national voices - Poles I and e~ ·mg to Poles, Hungarians to IIun-ffi~ I:~~ ch•if• ~nans, etc., in their own name, not in e name of the U. S. government or .t nd h~ ~f the American people. Its chief cen-wn. e ~rogr.1 ~r hf operation is in and around :\Iu­ ·~p? s } Jrof• ~uc. , Germany, broadcasts prepared J.l~tk 0 .\cdC' l~ Its New York studios covering some fc1 1 ~d~~ors. It pe~ cc~t of the daily total airtime. • 1 > e 11111 mamtams a relay service in Portu­, actors, rt> gal, with headquarters in Lisbon. :Y. arc c~p~cl That !'ladio Free Europe has suc- ,ncultu:c, ceeded m becoming a "home station 1cnt, scicnccc from abroad" is borne out by the com­if th~m 1:r1 rnents of refugees and letters. A refu­: ountnes C gee from Hungary said "That's our l e e f1 ·o m. <11' ra' di 0 an d t h ose are our' peop' le who g to thei~· ~~ t s~e~k over it." A Bulgarian comment­. ncl patrt0 k r , The villagers listen to Radio Free .strong ln;011 E1u~ope because the programs arc md the I P am spokl'!n, understandable to all, 'ld. tl~ ven the peasants." A Czechoslovak 1rope 1·s. on ~ Wrote , "R acl io F rec Europe is the mo' st :s major t•1\1 popular of stations not only because ers w1' tl l loC• Ibt is on t h e air all 'd ay long but ' also hour. Thr;e,, ekausc of the uniquely Czecho,sl.o­ose attenll~ va character of the broadcasts." An s of all sr. 1 scapee from Poland stated "Radio workers.Iii' ree Europe has completely 'succcecl­~ arty mcm the FA f' police, crs Fonu:-1 1Ews, February, 1956 ed in establishing a live contact be­tween Poles in Poland and Poles in the West. The programs, obviously broad­cast by and for Poles, are based on facts." Letters reaching Radio Free Europe from people behind the Iron Curtain emphasize the kinship that has grown between the RFE stations and people under Communist domination. They usually begin with such salutations as "Mv fellow countrymen," "Dear com­patriots abroad," "Our dear free breth­ren," "Beloved compatriots." COOPERATION NECESSARY Americans at Radio Free Europe work closely with the exiles - advis­ing, guiding and lending their profes­sional experience to the operation. The American-exile relationship is one of consultation among partners allied in the common struggle for a free world; it has resulted in a competent, professional broadcasting operation that has won the loyalty of millions of listeners. ,A basic concept of Radio Free Eu­rope programming is that truth is the most effective weapon against Com­munist lies. The truth is used in many ways. It matches the lies and distor­tions of the Communists with facts - often in such a way that listeners can check the facts with their own eyes and cars. It reports news of the world truthfu ll y. Disagreements among free world nations are neither ignored nor glossed over; they arc treated as ele­ments of the democratic pattern, wherein the right to discuss dilfer-enccs freely stands in contrast to op­presive conditions under Communist rule. Radio Free Europe employs the truth to expose events and conditions which the Communist regimes would prefer to hide from their people. In so doing, it often forces the regimes into admission or false denial of the cir­cumstances. The captive peoples are anti-Com­munist in overwhelming majority - perhaps 80 to 85 per cent. They listen to all the foreign broadcasts thev can. In certain countries-Poland, Czcch­? slovakia, Hungary, particularly-RFE IS adjudged to be the favorite station. It sustains its listeners' belief in the superior strength of the \V es tern pO\\ - ers and the higher moral and material content of democracy. It brings them reasons to continue their persistent opposition to the puppets of Ioscow by whom they are governed. lt docs not incite them to futile and danger­ous acts of rebellion hut guides their thinking and shows them that their spontaneous blocking of the purposes of each regime is evidence of their growing strength. Radio Free Europe programs weak­en the Iron Curtain regimes by spreading dissent among Communists, nourishing the amieties of regime functionaries, and creating a whole­some fear of retribution among those who refuse to purge themselves of their crimes against their fellow coun­h- ymen. John Ilvasta, the Czechoslo­vak- American who was imprisoned in Czechoslovakia for several vcars, ob­served that Communists hC: came in contact with "ere often influenced b) Page 17 Radio Free Europe and man) of them ,ire trying to "save up good will" as insurance against future liberation. Since Radio Free Europe wages a realistic campaign against commu­nism, it makes use, accordingly, of every available weapon, including e,·ery type of true anti-Communist which a tight security system can identify. At no time do Radio Free Europe programs accept the theories or practices of commu11ism, Marxism or socialism. But recog11i;:;i11g the real­ities of democratic developme11t in the history of pre-Communist Eastern Europe (u;hich was very difjere11t f ram America) Radio Free Europe uti/i;:;es exiles of all political faiths (except left and right extremists) in its all-out fig/it agai11st commu11ism. The programs arr varied in form and contrnt; there is somrthing for men, women and children of all ages, interests, needs and classes. There is music, dntma, varictv, co1nmentarv, portry, comedy, intcr\iews, quiz ar{d round table shows. Religious pro­g; rams and services arc broadcast to listeners of all faiths. Stress is laid on the native culture of the captive peo­ples - on their own music, literature and historv which the Soviet rulers h-y to suppress in the interests of in­ternational communism. ~ews is the staple product of Radio Free Europe, which daily builds its reputation for news speed, honesty and accuracy by regularly "scooping" the Communist stations. Listeners in the captive countrirs often hear im­portant news about Soviet Russia and their own countries over Radio Free Europe before they hear it on Radio \loscow, Budapest, 'Varsaw or Pnigue. For instance, the first bulletin on Stalin's death, Bcria's purge and :\lalenkov's n•signation was broadcast by Radio Free Europe many hours before Communist stations carried the news. The international nature of the op- ""'e in Europe lrnH• "i<'<"ll re .. uh!'I of it~ (Cru~afl(' for Fr<'Nlom) pro· gram.., nnfl lH' think thC':' arc doing a magnifit'ent job. " •.. 1hc So,ict., ""JlCJHI more mone} tr:' in1t to jam programs, "'iUCh ns the Cru ... ml(' for }""'rcedom, than the entire 1-~r<·c ,~·orld ~Jlt'nds in the field of pro1Jaicanda. In other word"l, the So' ieh recognize what a potent "._.upon propaganda j..,. Jlere \o\t' are a countr)" that sells "'Oap in term:-, !'iO attract he 'ou can almo:-,t ta"lte it; }Ct \o\C" ha'e trouble in de,eloping pro1>aganda that "ill appeal to the mind. I am :-,urc JOU all agree "ith me that the Cru~adc for Freedom bhould be ~upported. It i~ an entt.·rpri..,e that j.., going to take a long time to de,clo1• the nece ..... ar) know-ho", but I am cer­tain \\C can do it. I am sol.Jeri, OJlti- 1ni~tic tlrnt "c shall make good progre..,:t in thi~ fiC"ld." General Alfred i'1. Cruenthcr !:Jupreme Commt111tler, Allied f~orcers t.'uro1>e cration was summed up recently in a newspaper article by an American journalist" ho sun·cycd the :\cw York and i\lunich headquarters: "Persons of fiftcc•n or si,tcen di£Ierent nationali­ties work together at Hadio Free Europe in perfect harmon) for a com­mon end. '\'ationalist animosities and historical boundary quarrels are for­gotten in the common endeavor of creating a free, united Europe. Ameri­cans han• a right to he proud of the efficient, businesslike wav in which Radio Free Europe is doing; its cold war job ... a shining; example of what free American enterprise can accom­plish in psycholog;ical warfare against the Reds." '\ report by a famous American engint•cring company, which made a survey of Haclio Free Europe's instal­lations in Portugal, stated: "The whole undertaking has been accompli>l and become a working reality in almost unbelit•vahly short time. 1' quality and performance of the "' completed is first-class and the ful expended are probably below '~ would be considered normal. I' spirit of the organization transcr~ anything heretofore witnessed. I' whole group thrives under prcsstil Through "saturation broadcastit "repeat programming" and other t< eel techniques, Radio Free Europe been able to keep ahead in the ~ stant battle with enemy jammers. eral transmitters carry each F• Free Europe program simultanC01 on different wave lengths, cnabl listeners to seek the clearest Ioc,1V on their dials. Furthermore, each 11' gram is repeated up lo four tin1t: day, so if a listener misses part . program the first time or if he 1 home, hr can pick it up on a rrl Impossible to jam out is Radio f Europe's nightly "saturation scf\ · wherebv all transmittrrs are be•1 simultaneoush over different frc<J' cies to ont• co.untry at a time. " Cl· sounding" is a technical device 1. by Radio Frre Europe's engine~ staff to trst transmission concl1V and permit the selection of hroaclr ing chanm•ls that will drli,•er strongest and clearest signal to targC't areas. All of tlwse and many other f,ic - signal powc•r plus multiple trnn' tcrs plus flexible programminl( r des plus thr application and clr1 ' mcnt of pron·d engineering; prin"­- arc Haclio Free Europe's ans"·: the Communists' frantic dfor: black out thr truth from the \\'C'' In April. 1954, a long-ranl(C' paign uniting; the spoken and pr' word was initiated bv the Free ~11 Commitltr to Czedioslovakiu. 1 planned lo help create a "~t• Opposition" in Czechoslova~1a, could effeelivelv win concess10P the people, anci in doing so ,,., the Communists and sow the set' eventual lihrralion. Th<' leaflet op<'ration, sponsor< the Fr<'<' Europe Press, was sk 1 coordinated with daily progn~n'.' Hadio Free Europe in a masst'' to gi\ <' tlw CzC'choslovak pro11 facts, help and inspiration the\ to carry on the struggle again' rukrs. Similar operations wcrr ~ q11c•ntly launched to 1Iung•1r) Poland. Th<·rc• has lw<'n ample edcJc11r1 the combined wriltcn-ancl-'l word op<'ration has hec'n a si¢ 11 , step in th(' ckn·lopmenl of ,1 cl 1 WJT•i. woru.n PllOTO Near the West German town of Cham, a few kilometers from the Czechoslovak border, Radio Free Europe operates a mobile, medium wave transmitter with a 50,000 watt signal. wc·apon in the struggle to man's dignitv and freedom ,,·b< curtain of Scl\ iet darkness h•1' \\'I broacl ultim progr mind: ta in? It ears c "e!fec ence ing of Badie: for th dom rian '~ Pt't n The to th fare i it is ir nomi< Cold the J th<.'ref of all therm )'<.'t si tain _ mate from In e.valui hven dir<.'ct dicati encin1 the c; munis much correl self, a outsid analv inte"1 Thi manif1 accomplisl , reality in .ort time. 'fl ·c of the " and the fu1 v below ". normal. 1' ion transcc.,. 1itncssed. 1 1der pressu1 broadcasti1 and other ti rec Europe ad in the c ' jammers. y each I\• simultanro} 1gths enah lcare~t Joc11t nore each P' ;o ro'ur tiJlll iisscs part i e or if he 1 up on a rcJ~ .1t is Radio f 1ration scf\ ers a re be•11 !ferent frcQ' a time. "SC· cal device 1 le's enginrt~ :sion cond1 c on of broad viii deliver 1t signal to mv other f11~ 1ultiplc tratl' >grammin!Z on and de"' cering prior ·ope's ans''t antic effort ~m the \\'C'' long-ranize >ken and e~ · the Free J:.11 )Slovakia. Jt eate a "Pt choslovakia i eoncessio!l' :loing so ,,., sow the scC on, spons0~ •ss was sk1 iiy 'progn~n:: In a mass1' 1 1lo\'ak pcoJ'. iration th. e,'t gglc aiz111n-, tions were to Ilungii0 Effectiveness Of Radio Free Europe \\'hen all is said and done about the broadca~ts of Radio Free Europe, the ultimate question remains: Arc the pr.ogrnms reaching the hearts and 1111nds of people behind the Iron Cur­tain? It is not enough to command the ~ars of a large audience; the crux of effecti\ eness" is the ability to i11ff 11 - ~11cc the actions, as " ·ell as· tht• think­lllg of the listeners. In other \\Ords: ls Radio Free Europe "inning friends for the \\·est and for the cause of frce­ci. 0111, and undermining the authorita­rian grip of the Kremlin and its pup­pet n•gimt•s in Eastern Europe? There is no simple, absolute answer to this question. Psychological war­f< ne. is not an isolated phenomenon; it is lllterwoven with the political, eco­nomic and militarv components of the Cold \Var bctwt•en the Free \Vest and the Kremlin. Its ultimate success therefore is linkt•d "ith the outcome of all other Cold \Var activities. Fur­thermore, public opinion polls are not Yet sanctioned behind the Iron Cur­tain - hence, not even the approxi­~ ate findings that may be derived •om such polls are available. In the face of these limitations in e.valuating Hadio Free Europe's dfec­h~ ·eness, there is a mounting body of direct and circumstantial evidence in­dic,~ ting that HFE programs are influ­e1nc1ng the thinking and the actions of tic ~aptivc peoples, and of the Com­mumst regimes themselves. Although much of this evidence is accumulated correlated and analyzed by RFE it~ self, a good deal of it is obtained from outside sources, such as BBC's skilled ~nalysts who evaluate the impact of mte~ational broadcasts. Tl~is evidence of cffectivcnes is marufested in the following ways: ( l ) Letters from behind the Iron Cur­tain. ( 2) H.eports from escapees from satellite countries. (3) Communist measures to frighten and frustrate the listening audience. ( 4) The contents of official Communist reports, de­signed not for propaganda purposes but for internal party use. ( 5) Com­munist propaganda attacks against H FE. ( 6) Official protests by satellite regimes to the U. S. government. (7) Positive action by the regimes re­sulting from pressure by RFE broad­casts. ( 8) Positive actions by the pco­pl!' themselves as a result of specific HFE campaigns. A brief explanation of each of these evidences of program effectiveness follO\\'S: ( 1) Letters from H.FE's target coun­tries arc received every week from workers, peasants, teachers, students, housewives, intellectuals, shopkeep­ers, young people and even members of the party, the police and armed forces. Direct mail, refugees, traveling \Vestcrncrs and even carrier pigeons bring word that the people are listen­ing to Radio Free Europe and that its broadcasts are promoting the cause of freedom. i\lany letters are even sent to Radio Free Europe by listeners out­side the target areas. The Voice of Free Hungary, for example, received mail from Hungarian exiles in twenty­si' countries on five continents during a recent twelve-month period. Some letters are channeled through the regular mails, some are smuggled out. ~!any letters include detailed analyses of RFE programs, proving that Communist jamming e!forts have not been able to drown out RFE pro­grams, which are repeated sc,·cral times over multiple transmitters of These politico! refugees mode their bid for freedom ofter slave labor in Czech uranium mines at Joochimsthol. They were inspired to make their flight ofter reading leaflets released by RFE ba lloons. WJDE woru..o PHOTO RFE Photo Polish refugee children in a Munich studio par­ticipate in RFE's "Polish Teo Party," a variety program of music and sketches spiced with anti­Communist satire. both the short and medium wave type. A recent letter of the man) re­cci\' ed from Czechoslcl\·akia stated: ··1 want to C\prcss thanks and praise to all C'\iles for their efforts to estab­lish a free Czechoslovakia again, and for their words of encouragement through Radio Free Europe, inspiring millions of our citizens to continue rt'­sistance to the Communist regime and hope for a better future. Practi­cally every child can tell you that t•ntirc families listen to the programs. This is because you arc not promising paradise on earth, lwcausc you arc not lying and because all your words are truthful and such that ev<'rv honest Czech and Slo\'ak feels thc(11 in his heart." (2) Escapees consistently report that RFE programs are wide!) heard and given extensh·c \\Ord-of-mouth circulation. Even in the few large cities where they arc powerfully jammed during certain hours, they get through. Interviews with refugees - which are conducted as scrupulously as possible in order to separate fact from fiction - reveal that the satellite people depend most of all on HFE as their point of contact with the Free \\1orld and their countr\'mt•n now liv­ing in the West. The Polish Air Force pilot, Franciszck Jarecki, ''ho flew his jet plane to \\'est Germany, made the following statement: "There arc three things the Com­munists cannot kill: ''hat mother said about Cod and Poland, what one's own heart dictates and what Hadio Free Europe tells us." Dr. ;\Jarck Korn\\·icz, who defected from the Polish delegation to the United Nations in 1953, said: "l want to emphasize the enormous impor­tance of Radio Free Europe. You have no idea with what longing we wait U .. LABOR EXTENDS SUPPORT TO CRU ADE American labor plan~ to take a more acthc part than c"·er in the Cruw.ade for Free<lo111, necording to "-illiant \'\. ""ei~s, "'ho ha~ just been named Cru .. ude liai..,on repre· sentathe for the (.;ongrC!"S of In· dustrial Organizations. 'tr. \'\ ei~b, ~ho-.e hon1c is in Pitt--burgh, is a member o( the lJnited Steel'\o'ior"-erb of America. Ile \\ill ~ork in the Cru'!ade,!oo ~·ash~ ington offiC'e "°ith John A. DeChant, "ice pre~ident or the Cru~ade. During the (.rusade o,erseas in· s1>ection trip or llaclio Free Europe and Free Europe PrelilS, the party was joined by Irving Brown, Euro­pean rc1nesentati'e or the American Federation of Luhor, and Victor Reuther, director of international affairs for the CIO. Reprinted from ,,·tu·s I.Aller, Crusade for Freedom, ~ov. 28, 1955 for this information." Vaclav Uhlik, whose home-made tank crashed across the Iron Curtain from Czecho­slovakia to West Germany, declared that Czechoslovaks listen ··conscienti­ously to Hadio Free Europe and be­lieve its broadcasb like the Bible." Similar statemenb arc made by hundreds of other incliYiduals who cross the border. .\ former prisoner of Recsk prison camp in Hungary stated: "Hungarians sec in Hadio Free Europe the embodiment of an idea which is capable of defeating communism." A non-Communist Swedish student brought back the following message from H.omanian friends at the Bucha­rest Youth Festival, "Go to Hadio Free Europe and tell them how things arc here, that we have not lost courage and that the hope for freedom still burns with us. Tell them we listen regularly to their broadcasts." Cmsade, threatened: "The crusaders of today run the risk of losing not only their hats, but also thei1· heads." (4) Official Communist reports stress the danger of RFE to the re­gimes. One report, prepared by the Hungarian ~linistcr of Defense, stat­ed: "The most dangerous effect of Radio Free Europe is that it results not in organized resistance, which is easily detected and suppressed, but in atomized resistance which is more dif­ficult to control. For example, a Radio Free Europe program recently com­pared the situation in Hungary to a former despotic era: the effect of broadcasts of this kind is that they create resistance among Hungarian soldiers to the Army's Russification program.'' Sometimes unofficial hut equally authentic reports of this nature reach RFE. For example, a high official in the Polish Communist government, in a personal com-crsation in the \Vest that he never dreamed would be re­peated, said: "Hadio Free Europe is accomplishing the work of the opposi­tion in Poland. It is the mortal enemy of the regime, which wot.Id offer any amount of money if it could persuade them to abolish this radio station." An­other Polish official revealed HFE's extensive "word-of-mouth" circulation by the following statement at a Dc•­partmcnt of Propaganda and Agita­tion meeting: "One radio set in each village is quite sufficient to poison the peasants' minds with ( \Vcstern) cal­umnies and lies." Hcgimc attacks on HFE increast>d !n number and violence during 1954. In Czechoslovakia especially, regime propagandists quoted HFE broadcasts in substance and at length in order to assail them. It became clear that some of these anti-HFE campaigns were be­ing conducted under t-loscow's direct guidance, as indicated by the publica­tion of hostilr articles in official Soviet organs and hostile broadcasts from \loscow, sptting the tone of subse­quent rrgimr campaigns. ( 5) A cardinal rule of psychologi­cal \\ arfare is not to dignify or ach·cr­tisc hostile propaganda by replying to it. The Communist regimes (and ~los- (3) The regimes have devised many ways to discourage radio listen­ership - though tuning in on Western broadcasts is not officialh a crime. In Hungarian communities,· for example, the Communbts ha,·c rccrnited "lis­tening couples" with instructions to drop in on neighbors unexpectedly and report if they arc listening to \\'cstcrn broadcasts -- especially HFE. In some communities, family dogs were seize-cl by local authorities (on the pretext of caninr disease epidem­ics) because the dogs intrrfered with the spying of thC' "listrning couples" bv barking warnings of their arrival. ·\\'hen word of Crnsadc' for Free­dom's campaign to raise- funds for the support of Radio FrC'e Europe' reached the people of Czechoslo,·akia. Radio Prague, in a violent attack ,1gainst the cow as well) have consistently br this mlc in regard to Hadio Free rope. In doing so, they have becl H.FE's best publicity agents. Dttl the past year, the Czechoslovak gimc in particular has gone bcyonl usual frantic invective against Jl it now q uotcs programs, in su bst• and in depth, then tries to refute tl in an effort to minimize their i!llP 1eanwhile, the anti-RFE vi! poured out by Communist radio tions, newspapers, magazines spccchmakcrs continues. Herc a few typical lines broadcast over Jl Prague: "The United States, tllC arch-Y1 behind a vast conspiracy agn peace and socialism, has brOl ha voe to innocent Koreans, Ind' nesc and countless colonial 11' who aspire to liberty. The traitO H.adio Free Europe, steeped 1n mud, serve that part of America'' criminals and gangsters arc pro!t so much that nothing happens to <'VCn when they kill another p1 \Vhat a difference when vou hsl Hadio Moscow broadcasts to C slovakia. From Moscow we hc•1r the Soviet people's work. lcisttf' education. From H.adio Free ~1 we just hl'ar the rattle of arms. The frequency of these att•1 \ illustrated in statistics on attnc Czechoslovak propaganda or from April through September., During this period, Hadio frt~ rope was thr su hject of more th• direct attacks (not includin(( rr, and rebroadcasts) as against . tacks directed a~ainst other \\ broadcasters. ~lore than 100 r•1 ; tacks alone bv Czrchoslo,ak 5 were heard in September. ~n t cases, regime campai~ns aga_1ns, arc spearheaded by mstruct101l· t-loscow. I A few of the epithets h11r H.adio Free Europe by the !let ·· cr1·n 11· na 1 ra 1J1 >1 e, ""( 1 i· r t y ,var~.;..·.. o..~ 1 "jackals," "miserable riffraff, l, of the ethrr," "saboteurs," from thr rn bhish heap," "radio J sion," and "yakkity-yakkcrs." The Communists utilize e\'e!) of the printed and spokell At R With and Wee I all c • Re1 • Ref • Re1 • Pre • Eve ""' • IN~ • Net 0 Dai • Tra • 55Q • 650 • 15,I • 10,i • Hor 1sistently br Radio Free ~y have be~ agents. Dttl :zechoslov•1k gone l_Jeyo~\ ·e against 1' ns in subst. ~s to refute t ize their irnl ti-RFE vit ~unist radio magazines 1es. Herc dcast over Jl the arch·" piracy ag• n has brot :o~eans, Ind' colonial 11' '· The trait(ll steeped iO Jf Amcric•1 11 ers arc prolt happens to another Jlf hen you lislt :leasts to C )W WC hc<lf 1vork, kisur: dio Free~ le of arms. : these att<t\ ics on attoir paganda or September. Hadio fret of more th' includin!Z rr, as against . 1st other \\ than 100 r•1~· choslo1·ak s tembcr. Jn ~igns ag;1inst instruction> pithcts Jiiirl : by the l\C~ lirty warm?., e riff raff," !, ibotcurs," ap" "radio J yakkers." utilize cl'cr nd spoke0 HOW RFE OPERATES A! RFE Headquarters in Munich, Germany, 115 editor-write rs, teamed With producers, actors, annou ncers, compose rs, musicians, researche rs, and freelance contributors create 184 hours of orig inal prog rams weekly. RFE-New York prepares an additional 25 hours per wee k, b ut all are broadcast from Munich. 1. INFORMATION • Reports from 15 RFE-News Bureaus (103 persons) flow into Munich at rote Qf 1,200 per month • Refugee interviews • Reports from travelers, athletes, letter...writers, etc. • Processed by staff of 46 evaluation experts, translators, etc., who assess reliability • Evaluation files contain 250,000 cards, with over 1,250,000 entries, thousonds of clippings, newspopers, maps, etc. w1m: wom.o rnoTo 2. MONITORING • Of 35 regime radio stations on regular basis 3. NEWS • INS, Reuters, and monitored Soviet and satellite news services • News items and reaction from RFE Bureaus • Daily roundup of news and comment by teletype from RFE-NY • Translations, reprintings, clippings, etc. • Spotcheck of 12 more • Soviet and satellite news services • Staff of 52 monitors over 200,000 words per day in 10 to 12 languages • Editorial comment and lead articles from American and West European press • Stoff of 23 processes and distributes 250,000 words per day, 24 hours a day, seven days a week 4. RESEARCH • 55o newspapers and magazines from behind the Iron Curtain • 650 Western publications • lS,000 books from the satellite countries • lO,OOO books from the West, with emphasis on economics and politics • Handled by staff of 41 researchers and librarians S. FLOW • VOICE OF FREE CZECHOSLOVAKIA • VOICE OF FREE POLAND • VOICE OF FREE HUNGARY • VOICE OF FREE BULGARIA • VOICE OF FREE ROMANIA I. Straight Newscasts 11. Political Commentaries 111. Group Programs - Labor, Agricultural, Women's, Youth, Economic, etc. IV. Feature Programs Page 21 through e\·ery medium of communica­tions to destroy Radio Free Europe: newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, posters, novels, the stage, radio, mov­ies and mass meetings. Propaganda against Radio Free Europe has be­come so intense that in Czechoslo­vakia alone, even on a dull day, Radio Free Europe intercepts at least one radio attack, and as many as ten have been recorded in a single day. ( 6) Almost from its birth, Radio Free Europe has been the target of official protests by the satellite re­gimes to the U. S. go\·ernment. Short­lv after RFE's "Voice of Free Czecho­s. lovakia" went on the air, in ~lay, 1951, the Czechoslovak regime pro­tested the existence of RFE to the U. S. State Department. The demand to extinguish RFE (which was firmlv rejected by our government) is appar­ently a measure of the regime's fear of RFE, and an indication that RFE is reaching the people. ( 7) There is considerable evidence that the programs have forced the re­gimes to take specific steps to protect themselves against the anger of the people. On several occasions RFE has exposed sub-human li\·ing conditions in prisons and slave labor camps; in man} of these cases, regime officials felt obliged to improve conditions, and brutal guards (either through fear or honest shame) have improved their behavior. \\'hen Radio Free Europe exposed the inefficiency and corruytion ram­pant in a large ek·ctrica plant in Budapest, a worker reported the fol­lowing results: "The facton· ran wild. Commies ran in and out. Conferences were held all da) long. Suspicion \HIS everywhere. \Vork practically stopped." Another t) pc of RFE "dcnuneia­tory" program is that which exposes the identities of Communist secret agents and informers. RFE has later received first-hand information from refugee:; to the effect that regimes have been forced to dismiss those ex-posed hy HFE (or transfer them to other regions) as their activities were rendered useless and the} became ob­jects of possible violence. \Vhcn the Hungarian Communist regime, in an effort to conse
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