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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1955 - File 069. 1955-01. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. January 19, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/839/show/838.

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Facts Forum. (1955-01). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1955 - File 069. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/839/show/838

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1955 - File 069, 1955-01, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed January 19, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/839/show/838.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Contributor
  • Evans, Medford
Publisher Facts Forum
Date January 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States: This item is in the public domain in the United States and may be used freely in the United States. The item may not be in the public domain under the copyright laws of other countries.
Item Description
Title File 069
Transcript price 20c January 1955 FACTS FORUM .ogomachy Page 21 s Peaceful "" . ... oex1stence >ossible? Read Pro and Con o :~.:ussion on Page 6 -lam Fisher Page 31 '"If hell the '°'I' of f!NICI' d1'gt'IU'fl1/t'.' illlO the fear of 1rnr. it b1•comn of all passio11.1 the most despicable:' 'f;\. \\" 11.LJ \\l BH\ '\(' 11 C11.LS of \ ' iq1 inia pr io r to the \rar of 1812 "Olle ill.I/lit pock1•ted .10011 prod11c1•.1 a1Zothn: · T ll O\I IS Ju FLHSO'\ "The policy a11d practice of the R11.>­sia1Z goremnu'lll lu11 e a/11ays bl'<'" to push fo n rn rd it .1 e!lcroac/1111e/l/S as fa.1/ alld as far as apath) or 1rnlll of firm­/ less of other goremm<'ll/.1 1w11/d allou ii lo go. but ahrnys to stop a11d r1•tire llhen it met 1rith decided re.1 istance, and then to 1rni1 for the next farorable op­portullity lo make allother .1pri11g 011 il.1 ill /ended rictim : · L ORD P 11.\IEHSTO'\ . Briti,h \ l in i, lt'r of Forei11n Affai r>. OH'r 100 y!'a r- al!o "l ,,/ess then' is I/fl 1•/em11l readi11e.1.1 to respond zdth the .1ame f11i1 h, th1• .1w111' courage, and the same derntioll ill the defense of our illstitutioll.I 11hich lll'fl' exhibited ill their establi.1 /ww11t. 11e .1hall be disposses.1ed. a11d others of 11 slem1•r fib re llill .1ei:e 011 our i11 /wrila11CI':· (.IL\ I'\ (.(l()l.IDGI. "'Whal i.1 a Commullisti' Olli' trho ha.1 yeam i11gs for equal diris ioll of 11111'qL1al earnings. Idler or lnwgler. he i.1 1ri//i Ilg lo fo rk Olli his pemzy a11d pock1•/ wur shillillg:' P er..,on~ ... ubmitti ng quota tion ... \\ hich art' u'!'d in thi, column 11 ill rt'rt'iH· ont'· year 'ub-criplion' to Fact.1 Fonun \ 1•11.1 . If alrl'ady a ,uJi,l' ribr r. tlw contributor ma) dt'-i11nale anolh!'r p<•r,on to 11 horn th!' a11ard ,uJi,cr iption 11 ill I)(' >-<'nl. or he may 11 i>h to ('\lt•nd hi, pn·-<·nl -ub­- criplion. Be 'u r t' lo Ji,l t lH' aut ho" and -ource- of all quotation,, FACTS FORUM NEWS f!i!!~h~1 i~~cbrl~~:i~~ 0la~~ct;.o~~~mPa!~i~'{p!~~ ~naJn o~~~:r~~~~:e~'n~ex:Tihpd?~~8t~~;~~~ apathy. Sub:cription rate: $1 !or 6 month1, $2 per y(•ar, $5 for 3 yC'ars. Any article cori· tained in Facts Forum News may be freely reproducNI. Second Class mailing privil('jtl authorized at Dal.as, Texas. Printed in U.S.A. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Robert H. DN!man, President; John L. Dale, Vice Pre~ident Warren A. Gilb<.rt, Jr., Secretary; Joe Nash, Treasurer; Mra. E. P . Lamberth, Mrti. Sut McCrary, Robert B. Gosactt. ADVISORY BOARD : Major B. A. Hardey, Chairman; Or. Arthur A. Smith, Lloyd :£ Skinner. David P. Strickler, Harry E. Roeier, William N. Blanton. M n. H . L. Hunt, Mf'!' ~~v~·no~u~~~~ JS°h'iv!1r~· c':~~~~~e A~b:~~ec. ww~~m~~~l::1eG,en~~:~ ~~!~~\~~·w~~~:~1i~ McNider, John Wayne. COMMENTATOR: Dan Smoot. EDITOR: Medford Evans. BUSINESS MANAGER: O. M. So<-nre. It you wish to make a contribution to Facts Forum, addr<'M Joe Nash, Forum, Dallas l, Texas. Such contributions carry a tax-deductible status. Vol. 4 JANUARY, 1955 FACTS FOR M i. a nationwid(• public educational venture dc.-dicated to arotl!dnv pu~li interci;t in important current <.·vents and stimulating ind ividual particip1\tion in th<' shsP1 or public policy. Facts Forum i" nonprofit and nonparli1tan, supporting no political candidatc> or psrtf Facts Fo~um's activiti<'S are designed to present not just one view or a controversial i~~ut but all vkws. b('lieving that it is the ri1rht and the obligation o( the American J)<.'Opl(' thO"'I s<>IVC'9 to karn all the facts and come to their own conclusions. DECEMBER POLL RESULTS % YES (Closed December 5th l 78 llas thP Commu11i ' l \\O riel conspiraq ga inPd 11rouncl in 195 1 '! Ill Is l ... public IH'inl! suhjecl('d lo propa11ancla to popula rizt' l \ 50 Should th t' go,<·rnmt• nl C'raC'k do1u1 on hig industr ial m(' rgNs'! 71 Art' hoth majo r pa rt i('s br ing in flu e1H'<•d by Commun ists? n:i <\ re So!'ia listiC' trends 11eaken in 11 <\ mt'r ica", backbont>, p ri1H11 enlC' rpr i't'? 11 .'\r(' ,d100J, doin11 a Jl('tter job o[ l<'aC'hing :i Jrs Loda) than 21 year:-. al!o '? 9 1 Shou ld lht' puhli C' he told " ho promot<'d and honorably di,rbarg"i PC're-.;..,'( 17 1 Ja, J·:i-<'nh o11('r gi \!•n Amer ica ns th <• !'hange hr pro mised in 1952 6:l If import tariffs w<•rt• 1011!· red would Am<· rican 11 agr seal<'s ouffrr 22 ls Ti1o"s C'Omm uni sm any diffprpnt from So, irl communism? 72 Should i't'a rl Ha rbor di ,_a,lt'r J)(' rt'- im t's ti gatecl in light of rt'"'" di,cJo,urt''? ·:~ Shou ld 11<· int'n'as<' our lechn iC'al a"i'tan('t' lo C'Ounlr it's li ke lncli3 ll Should a l \ <·mployet' put loyalty lo U'\ bdorP th at of hi· <·ou ntn·? :12 Should the Pn•, icl<' nt's C'ahinet m<'<'tings be Lele, is<'cl '? Yes No DD 1. DD 2. DD :t DD I. DD 5. DD 6. DD - DD 8. DD 9. DD i o. FACTS FORUM POLL Closes January 5 Do('s the l .. nr('cl th <' " Atoms for P('aC'e" plan? ArP \\('show in~ sig-ns or incrrased a pp ea~(' m e nl lo comrnuni ... 111 Is \!Pnd<•,. France rea ll y our fri end '? Should school and college studt'nh debatt' l ' .. n•c·o11nition ~ Ht'd Chin a'? hould J ohn Paton Da\i C's haH' h('('n fired ? Can 11P win tlH' fight against commun ism us ing 0111) def<· 11, i1 m('US llf('S '( hould th (' f('clPra l go1c•rnmPnl ' JlC'nd 50 billi on on 0 11 highway>? Will a n·armecl Ct'rmany ht' an able all)? hou ld th <' l nitrd Statps hrt'ak off rel ati ons with J{u" ia'? ls dra-i iC' r<'du C'tion of go1prnm<·n t th (' h('sl \l ay to C'urh r01 ru pt ion '? DD 11 . Do mo'l Amt'r ican' pref pr fr<'<'dom to 'erurity? DD 12. Should th <' qtH»lion "Who promoted Pr rl'"?" be an"1t'f1 in fu ll '? DD J:l. Should th C' s('c·n·l '\ alta a11n·<·m1• nts i1<' made puhli C'? DD l I. \ n· puhli" \ ma' d<'C'Ora tion- plan n('d lo und <'rmine Chri -ti• tradition '? • You or your fr iends may write in your votes by listing your answers on a separate sheet of paper, simply omitting the questions on which you have no opinion (ff example, 1. Yes, 2. No, 4. Yes, etc . ) , and mailing to Facts Forum, Dallas 1, Tet~ (no other address necessary ). Your votes will be counted the same as if they "'' entered on a ballot. s. tallc 0; imp Am 0('fl whc of l all in , rito not ll ('U pri!: as ~ 1 Am of I ITI ('J I(»! 111 (') a11r WUJ lra1 ( Kn mu Arr l n ( for ( Joi Ch tha I Fi vs ?ublished month~ dispelling publ Any article con· Tiailing privikit' Vice PrcRident ~berth , Mr!'. gut Smith, Lloyd £ H. L. Hunt, Mr. E. E. MC'Qui\lt>fl !;. Wood, Han!ori . TreaRurer. fa41 No.1 s d in 1951'! opularitP l \ al mC'rgcr:-i '! ni~t~'? kbonr. pri' al• today than 21 ibly disrhar~t·• miml in ] 952 c scales suffer mmuni:-.rn '! light of r<'n·11 rir, like 1 ndia >re that of hi· rd? recognition ° billion on 0 11 h Ru>sia '! a} to curh ,.,,, 1blir'? ' rmine Chri•ti.t wers on a se pardf we no opinion I~ 1m, Dallas 1, f e1 ~ me as if they "'' Blockading The Chi11a Coast )lao Tse-tung says America is a paper tiger which can roar and make noise but which cannot even defend its own. In view of Communist China's recent imprisonment of thirteen Americans being held as "spies," does "cnator William J(nowland's recommendation to blockade China J>ro­, ·ide the solution lo forcin~ their release? -Wide World Photo Senator William F. Knowland ( R-Calif.I talks to reporters. O' \oH'mher 21, 1951, the hinrsr . Communisb announced that they had imposed prison sentences on thirteen American•, eleYen of "horn were mem· hers of our armed forces and two of whom were >aid to be ci' ilian employees of the Army. The Communi;,ts said that all of thc>e Americans were shot down in a plane which was O\er Chinese ter· ritory and that, inasmuch as China was not at war, tlwy were thrrcforr violating nr~1lral territory and were not legitimate Jlrl>om·rs of "ar hut were to he lrcatrd as 1.,,pit's.1 Two day, later, on \O\cmhcr 26, the American late Department sent a notr of protr't to Peiping. The tate Depart· mcnt denounced the charges as "base· lrss" and said that the lrralmenl or the men Yiolall'd the Korean arm1sllrc a!(re(•mrnt for return of all prisoners of war. It demanded thrir immediate rr· lease.' On NoYember 27, enator William Know land rrcommcndcd that if Com· munist China refused to release the Anwricans hcin!( hrld as spic>, the l nitcd , talcs should blockade China.' On \on'mbrr 28, the Communists formally rejected the American prote>l.2 On \oH'mhcr 29, ccrctary of late J,ol~n Fo>ter Dulles, in a speech in Chl('ap:o, n'jrct«d Know land's 'tl!(!(est ion that we blof'kadr China.• Facts Forum's que;,tion: '\ hould the l"nited States impose a hloekade of Communist hina lo force lhr relea•c of American prisoners?" * * As usual, let's look at the question from two op1>osite sides, taking first the arguments of some who answer the question "Yes." FACTS FORUM EWS, Jamtnr11, 1955 Sl'\CE the beginning of the Korean war, our go,ernmrnl has had full knowledp:e thal the Communists were murderinp:, torturing, hrain-waohing American prisoners fallen into their hands.' By June, 195L the llnited talcs llip:h Command in Korea had accumulated documentary and ey"' itness e' idrnce to proYe that O\'er eight thousand Amrri· can soldiers had been tortured and mur· drrrd by the Communists. Whal did we do ahout it? Tn July. 1951, General Ridgway sent a con· fidential reporl on it to the United ''fations. What did the l "nited '\ations do aboul il? '\othing. The Pnited l\ations sup· pres>ed the report did not e'en put it on the agenda [or diocu5'ion.' Why? They did not want lo offend Rusoia or the Chinese Communists. Just two week bdorr thr l re­ceiwd General Ridgway's report on Communist atrocities in Korea, Jaeoh Malik, H.ussia's delegate to the United "ations, had sugge led a erase-fire in Korea for peace talks. Thr reason that Malik sup:gested this erase-fire was to saye the Communists. Thry "ere in bad slrnpe; we had them on the run. Our generals in the field therr had made it abundantly clear to Washington that we could destroy Communist power, nol only in Korea but in A•ia, if we would take the wraps off our armies and let them fight. instead of merely holdinp: them on the front linrs where they could hr slaughtered.• But the l"'\ did not "ant to destroy the Communists. Our allies said thal if we started talking about Communist atrocities in Korea, we would agitate the Communiots and make it difficull to talk peace with thrm. The Arheson-Tru· man Slate Deparlmrnt. endorsing this aq~ument, tried to krcp all information aboul the torturing and murdering of our men concealed from the American people; and we entered into the truce nep:otiation•. "hirh \\Crl' nothing more than a trap to gi\ e the Communists a chance lo bring up reinforcements, rep:roup tht•ir >lrrnp:th, and prqiare for surpri;;e attack• against our forces.• But in ' o,-embcr, 1951. there was a serious leak. Lieutenant olonel James llanley, thrn Chief of the War Crimes ection of the Eip:hth rmy in Korea. crt>aled consternation in the United a· lions and in tht> merican Stale Depart· menl b) trllinp: the I""" in l>..orea about <'' idence thal the Communist had tor· lured and murdered thousands of llnited States pri•onef'.7 -Wide World Photo Gaunt from malnutrition and mistreatment, Master Sergeant Barney Ruffoto, of Lead, S.D., was one of about 21 American prisoners of war who survived the Red massacre of at least 68 other POW's north of Sunchon, North Korea. Page 1 242678 Colonel Hanle} "a' rebuked, trano­ferred out of his job, and the truth of his information denied by our own government.7 Our United Nations allies kept us involved in fruitless, frustrating peace talk! in Korea for fifteen months, until October, 1952. Time and again during that period the Communists brokr off the cease-fire talks with trumped-up charges of viola­tions on our part and launched surprise attacks. Time and again we would hold our men back for more cease-fire talks, at the very moment when a determined push would have destroyed the enemy.0 We finally broke off the talks in October, 1952; but in April, 1953, we leaped with as much unseemly haste as before when the Reds uggested pri!oner exchange and more talks.8 Again we followed the l nited l\ations' lead and went through one of the most humiliating experiences in American history. We entered into a good faith agreement with the ommunisls to e'­change all sick and wounded prisoner . On April 15. 1953, when the prisoner exchange began, American fliers, sent up to watch the progress of the ex­change, had to fight their way through Communist antiaircraft fire. These American fliers reported hundreds of enemy trucks, boldly rolling along in broad daylight on the roads designated for transporting UN pri oners to the point of exchange. The trucks bore the specified markings which kept our men from attacking them. But they were not carrying our prisoners. They were carry­ing ammunition and fresh Communist troops. Thus. the moment the exchange -Wid• World Photo American POW's return to freedom during prisoner exchange in Korea. Page 2 -Wide World Photo The Army released this photo showing bodies of victims in the Taejon massacre in Korea. At the time we signed the Kore armisticP agreement in July, 1953, o gowrnmenl had the names of 951 .Arne~ ican soldiers who were listed in o own records as missing in action bd presumed lo be prisoners of war in !hi hands of the Communists - but who. names, however, were not on l repatriation lists that the Communis were giving us. They were presumed II be prisoners of war because all of the~ subsequent to the time when they we~ first reported missing in action, ha been mentioned in Communist rad broadcasts as being alive or had actual been seen in Communist prioon earn~ by other American prisoners. In ansW to our feeble protests that they were n~ returning all American prisoners, t Communists made it very clear that the4 were holding some Americans as pohl cal prisoners, although they would ne' ' tell us who or how many.n began, we knew the ommunists were violating the terms of the agreement, sneering at us and maneuvering in posi­tion to kill more of our men. Yet we supinely went through with the deal, handing over six thousand of their pris­oners, following our part of the agree­ment to the letter. They returned 120 Americans, keeping back men who were desperately ill and in need of decent hospitalization keeping them back to be u ed a political hostages and as propaganda fodder to pro,·e to the peo­ple of China that the American nation could not even protect its own soldiers.• As the process of prisoner exchanr drew to a close and word leaked out 1 the American public that the Com!ll nists still held O\er 950 Americ3 soldiers whom they were keeping political hostages in Yiolation of th Korean armistice terms, there was gre pressure on our gornrnment to do so!ll thing lo rescue these American '" diers.11 held OUTCRY OF RAGE After the little handful of exchanged American prisoners came back, they told stories of brutality, starvation, exposure, physical and mental torture, and of Americans shot in the back of the head or kicked off a road to die. They told, in short, storie which our government had known all about and had formally reported lo the nited ations over a year before - stories which our govern­ment had rebuked Colonel Hanley for re,·ealing and which our government wanted to keep from the American people.• There was an outcry of rage from the American public wben we finally got an inkling of what was happening to our soldiers in Korea. Our government placated American public opinion by blustering and talking about the Communist atrocities in the spring and summer of 1953; but we nonethele s continued our negotiations for an armistice and, in July, 1953, con­cluded an armistice agreement with the Communists on terms written largely by the Communi,ls and by l ndia.10 The most important provisions of those armistice agreements had to do with the exchange of prisoners. We promised to repatriate all Communist pri oners who wanted to return, and they promised to release all American prisoners who wanted to come home. From the day the agreement was signed, our go,ernment knew that the Commu­nists were violating it.10 mun simp What did the American governrne do by way of rescuing its own soldier' It made protests. Pentagon brass Ji ally devised a way to slop public prr sure on this is ue. It started killing thr American boys off in the files. In oth words, instead of continuing to rep~ the 951 as mi,sing in action or as '~ being held by the Communists, wh1 was actually the case, the Pentagon V gan to report them as ch'ad. And thu' reduced thP numlwr of l\merican be If quie teen ing go,·c: won Yiou cialc thos ~­the teen ~vay 1ca can not kno can grat and bod gra1 Am mm } lenl gov den of Mr ~ the ali1 int• mu dip -Wide World ,~ ~;: This Department of Defense picture. leased in connection with Korean war otrol ties, shows a U.S. Army officer exo"'i• one of the blood-spattered cells in a ~· Korean Army prison. giv alli FJ ed the Kore July, 1953, o es of 951 Arne : listed in o ~ ; in action b ·s of war in thl its - but who. : not on thl he Communi! ere presumed t rnse all of thefll when they we in action, ha immunisl rad' ! or had actual st prison rarnP Jncrs. In ans"j at they were n 1 prisoners, ~ ·y clear that th _ricans as polil :hey would ne'·' any.11 ·isoner exchan~ •rd leaked out 1 hat the Cornlll 950 Americ vere keeping ' violation of th ., there was ~re ment to do solll ! American !' ican ~overnlllf its own soldier· ntagon brass Ji stop public prr arted killing thf the fi Jes. In oth tinuing to rep action or as !1 nnrnunists, "·h~ the Pentagon dead. And tht1! if l\nwrican h<' -Wid• World p Defense picture,' th Korean war otr ny officer exa111i• ered ce lls in a fril 0 ~WS, January, I -Wide World Photo Colonel James M. Hanley held as political hostages by the Com· n;unists not by rescuing them, but simply by writing them off.12 If the Chinese Communists had quietly executed or imprisoned the thir­teen Americans whose fate is now creat· ing such controversy in the world, our government would never have said a '~ord about it. In fact, it is very ob· '~ously embarra sing to American offi­rialdom that it now mu t admit that those thirteen Americans are not dead." A PAPER TIGER Why did the Communists announce the trial and punishment of these thir· teen Americans? This is Mao Tse-lung's ~vay.of proving to all of Asia that Amer­ica i., as he says, a paper tiger whi h can roar and make noise but which can· not even defend its own. We will never know how many thousand of Ameri­can soldiers have been paraded in de­gradation as captive slaves in the towns and villages of China, their minds and bodies and spirits utterly broken, dis­graceful exhibits of what happens to Ame~icans who dare to defy the Com· mumsts.18 And now that the enemy has inso· lently publicized a condition which our government has been trying to keep hid­den has thrown it right into the teeth of President Eisenhower and Mr. Dulles what are President Eisenhower and Mr. Dulles doing about it? Talking nothing else. We could restore American honor in the world and save the Americans still alive whom Truman and Acheson sent into the indescribable horrors of Com· ~unist slavery. If we would break off diplomatic relations with all Commu· n!st countries, institute a tight naval and air blockade of the entire China coast, give fair warning to all of our so-called allies that not one ounce of their own FA TS FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 shipping would be permitted to enter or lea\'e China waters, and then take the wraps off Chiang Kai-shek and Syng· man Rhee, give them the freedom and material assistance for a final, all-out assault against the Chinese mainland, we could still destroy Communist power in Asia without getting ourselves involved in a land war there." Why don't we take such action? If you will read carefully the speech that ecretary of State John Foster Dulles made at Chicago on November 29, you will discover why America is no longer able to stand behind the sol· diers whom she sends into battle. Mr. Dulles stressed the fact that the United States must act within the charter of the United Nations. This means that the United States, in joining the UN, sur­rendered its essential sovereignty - that is, surrendered its power lo make de· cisions in its own interests." In effect, Mr. Dulles says that what· ever we might want to do or feel ad· visable, we are controlled in what we can do by what the United ations Charter will permit us lo do. Mr. Dulles, in his Chicago speech, after ruling out any action which might rescue Americans imprisoned in China, said, "Our nation will react and react vigorously in the protection of our citi· zens." Now, just what kind of reaction is Mr. Dulles talking about? Later on in that same Chicago speech, he tells us: We must step up our economi aid to the people of Asia in order to show them how well-meaning we are and to strengthen them against communism." What has happened to America the land of the free and the home of the brave? EXPENDABL! PAWNS? When a nation - any nation - sends its soldiers into battle and then fails to back them up with all the power it possesses, it is doing what ruthless ty· rants have always done - using its sol· diers as expendable pawns in a game of international politics. As long as there is one abandoned American soldier in a Chinese Com· munist jail, there is a mark of dishonor on every living American." We are now al the crossroads: We will bluster with double talk and whine in the for help, or we will redeem our national honor. * That was one side of the question. 'ow let's look at the opposite side­the arguments of some who DO OT approve of blockading Red China to force the release of American pri•­oners held by the Communists. * * * * * THE reaction to enator Knowland's saber-rattling proposal that we block· ade Red China in retaliation for the sentencing of thirteen Americans ranged all the way from the restrained skepti· cism expressed by the conservative Dallas Morning News to the outraged indignation expressed by Max Lerner in the very liberal New York Post. Said the conservative Dallas Morning News in a lead editorial, unday, November 28: "Eisenhower is bitterly criticized in -Wide World Pnoto President Eisenhower with Secretary of State Dulles Page 3 ome quarters for the 'milk-and-waler· note 'ent to Red China demanding the relea. e of the thirlet•n l\mPric-an' that have been com icted as 'pie, .... l \ rl] the critic-' of the national administration have left unanswered the question of what else can be done. If we send a very strong note, we must be prepared lo back it up with action if the Peiping gowrnmenl should refuse lo comply. If we should then take action, it probably would not mean an all-out war with Ru sia and her allies ju t at present. But there is a probability that Russia's strategy would be greatly strengthenrd if we hould become bogged in a war with Red China's 100 millions. supplied with Ru"ian arms. \"i e might wa8te our man-and-material strength in a "ar of many years while Russia conserved and developed her strength for the hig sho" - down.1 • "We might blockade the entire China coast, but it is a long coast and the Red Chine'e gowrnmenl has rect·ntly re­ceived a number of Russian submarines that could cause trouble. The reinforce­ment brought by these submarines might be al the bottom of what now appea" to be a Chinese challenge lo our position and prestige in the Far Ea,l. "l'nder any circumstances, the fir~l re,ult of such action by us would hring the immediate death of the Americans who>e lives \\e are now trying to sa1e. It would aJ,o bring the imm1•diate eizure of Hong Konp: \\hich tlw Hrili>h have been desperatelr endeavoring to hold. It would complicate our relation' with France by stirring up ne" troul>IP in outheast A'ia.16 "The fact is that \\!' have \\Orkt'd ou,,eln»- and hePn worked ll\ otht•r, into such a position that 'dfsrrrtion must he thP lwtter part of rnlor' until we and our allies can present a solid front in opposition to thP front that the Communist world now presenb.""' aid \1ax Lt•rncr in the liheral \eu } ork Post: "The hyperthyroid C..ongrc"men in en. Kno" land\ "ar dance circle who ultimala and calling loudly for hostili­ti<'!- i cannot he a~ idiot[ ic] as th er sound. Thrv ought to kno1; that a 1 irious circ-le has de11•J. oped in the rela­tions bet\\een \Tao's go1ern­m Pn t and our 0\\11. -Wide World Photo Lerner "'As long as neithrr nation re1·ognizcs thee\­islenet' of the other ... chaos "ill lw their r111 oy and hale their communique. The (hinbt' "ill continue lo find rea· son' for fn•sh outrages and \\C will go on with a firmer resolw than e11•r lo refu,e n•eognition.11 '"\"i ar is no solution and prott•sts \\ill do little good. \"i'c cannot ewn retaliate. because we are a lready u•ing cwr) means short of 11 ar by arming and sub­sidizing Chiang on Formo a. Our rela­tions with A'ia will continue to he plunged in darknc•s until we reach a general settlement of all ouhtanding i~sue~. inrluding rrcognition."11 From all parts of the nation. con­serrnti\ cs and liberals alike rais1·d their ,·oires in \\Urning ag-ainsl tlu~ ra~h and dan!!erous action urged hy the litth· c-lique of reactionary politicians who"' reputations have heen built on the kind -Wide World t'hoto General Ridgway called a halt to Kaesong peace talks in 1951 when these armed Chinese troops marched within three-quarters of a mile of UN truce headquarters. Page 4 of ranting demagoguery that has do much to keep our nation whipped in a frenzy of fear and confusion. The insolent announcement by t Chinese Communists of their outrn~ ous action against American soldier• just the kind of thing that can goad jittery nation into thoughtleos actiol The Chinese Communists ob1iously 1 tended for their announcement to ha1 that effect on us. They had been ho ing those American prisoners for mar months in some eases for years. 'l1i trials had heen held and the senten~ imposed long hcfore. But the Chin~ Communists chose to make their • nounccmenl on the e1 e of Thanksgili1 precisdy the time "hPn AmPrira normally in a holiday mood in a 11ar1 homey. friendly framt' of mind. 11011 he most likely to respond irrationn lo the news that American soldiers 11r being imprisoned in a distant, ho,I land." NO WAR ACTION ecretary Dullt•s, in his speech Chicago repudiating the fooli,h rero mendation of Kno" land, hinted at th 1ery thing when lw said: aPrrhaps inkrnalional communi:--111 trying hy a 1ic\\ war lo di1idc the Ir nations. Tlwy sepk to llP soothing Europe. Th Py arc prornr-ali' c in A· "What has happened is a c-hallen~r us, and indPed lo all who 11ant pea lo find ways. eonsislt'nt "ilh pt·ar<'· st1'tain international right• and th0 of our citizens. ratlwr than n<J11 rt"11 ing to wur action ~urh as ruH al and lllockade of HPd China.""' Aft!'r ni1w heroic years of sprndi tlw blood and treasure of our natio1 build the free \\Oriel into a solid wail n•sistancr against communism strengthen ourseh·cs and all our ~ii militarily and rc-onomically for unif resistance against ovic-t imperiali•n1 1 . we mll'•t nol no" undo it all with [oo (and fruitless) action which, fur fr relieving the suffering of our 111rn China, \\ould no doubt make mall e11'n more horrible for them; 110 alienate the suppo rt of our friend' 01 <'r the world 1' ho ha1 e rushed to ' d1•fe1N' in thi' lryin!( moment: ' "oulcl IPa\l' t1' standing lwlplt•s" • alonP, "ith world opinion again'' and 11 ith the rnsl Communi,l ellll nol 11 pakP1wd but strengthened h) ' pointless bluster." As matters now stand, this 0111r ni t outrage has galvanized the I nations into a unity of spirit and I pose rarely achieved in today's trou~ world. Even Great Britain, which shown some restraint in rommentin~ FACTS FORUM Peir to Ami said Chi1 li -. the faitl \~ Con Int' has l"ni ma~ part p ing .ect Am Lill(' T l"PbJ wit! l ni whi he i acti eap lica \\.UI ma1 will ten j!'O the 11·lc I abi dh of ' nin sup dis l n alli icemenl by I f their oulra~ rican soldier> Lhal can goad rnghtless artio 3ls ob' iously 1 ncemenl to ha • had been hol soners for 1nan !S for years. 1' nd the sentenc l3ut the Chinr-make their of Thanbμ:i' 1 , hen America wod ina"ttf~ of mind. wou Dond irrationa ran soldirrs "·t' l distant. ho>I CTION n his speech lie foofo.h n·ct' id, hinted at th d: lal ('Omrnuni~111 lo di,idc the fr ) hr soothin!1 ,,·orali\r in /I· d is a challcn!(f who \\anl p<'3 ·111 "ilh peact'· rights and th• · than no'' fl':"'1 1 as 1Hl\al and l.', rn }Cars of speudi e of our natio11 nto a solid waH communism I and all our al nirally for unif 1iel imperialisn1. o it all with fool n which, far fr' 1g of our men ·uhl make mall for them; "o of our friend' im e rushed to inμ: mom<·nt: 1dinμ: lwlple•s >pinion a~ain~l Communist en11 renμ:tlwrwd Ill land, this on'f alvanized the of spirit and I' in today's trotrl• Britain, which t in commentin~ 8WS, JmwarlJ. I -Wide World Photo General Matthew B. Ridgway Peiping's pm.t actions, has been mo\ NI lo term this latesl imprisonmenl of Am(•ricans as "outrageous," and has said it deals a hea\y blo" to Hed China 'i; ambition to be admillcd to the l \. The Briti-.h Foreign Of fire accused the Chinese Communist- of '"bad faith.'' 11 ACTION HAS BACKFIRED Whale\er the moti,es of the hinest• Communists, their action has baC'kfired. In tlw \\ar for world opinion, Reel China has. been O\erwhelrningly defeated. The l n1t~,cl States has e\'erything lo gain hy makrng sure thal no rash a('liorr on our part will now lurn the tables. President Eis nhower's Lask of decid­ing ''hat action this nation "ill lake to •<·c·ure the n•lease of the imprisoned Ameri!'ans is an unpleasant and an trrwm iahle one. Tlw President musl be faithful lo his n:sponsibilit) for acting in aC'cordance with \\ hal is lo the best interests of the l nited tales in the long run. But while cl<·liberating on a course of action, he .is beleaguered by drniands for strong a<·l101~ hy everybody from rt'lired armi <'aptarns up lo the chief Senate Rq>uh­liran. 15 l nl<•ss tlw public is ready to wage \\ar. on Reel China, \\C must acl diplo­m. atr(·ally rathl·r than militarili. \\ ar "tll'. .Heel China could succeed only al ~t'rr1fw !'Ost to the L . and at μ:rme ieoμard) to the on·r-all effort to slanC'h the tide of \loscow-clirectecl world en­' <'lopment." Bl''l C'slimates place Red China's cap­ab1lrly for μ:round warfare al a thousand di, isions. The l nited tales. at lhe p<•ak o~ World \Var J [, had managed to fide! nrrwty·six di, isions. Our na\al and air superiority would help offscl this troop disparity, bul the entire resourct•s of the l ''.ill'd tatt's, and probably of our all re-., would Im' e to go into tlw fight. FACTS FORUM EWS, Januwry, 1955 And ''hilt· our rorn•:-. \\t'rt' hoμμt~d do" n in China. Russia "oulcl doubt le" st'izt' tlw opporlunil) to makt' "'el'pinp: territorial conquests in Europe. lled China ii; an outla" nation, and at lhe moment there do<'> not seem to he anithing we can do but protest \\lH'n our citizens are abused al its hands. Our best chance lo achie\e justice for Americans in China is to heha\e our­seh es in the humane and ci\ ilized wai thal will keep world opinion on our side. Jn this way, we \\ill ultimately pro\e lo the Chinese Communist>; that the) <'annol be looked upon as a ri\ iii zed na­tion until lhey beha\e like a ci,ilized nalion.1 ALLIES ARE WORRIED Our allies have long been fearful that the United Stales, by some hasty and ill-con8idered action, would plunge the world inlo a third great \\Ur. They haw \\alched the nited Stales, as a slronμ: and wealthy nation, exhibit patience and diplomacr in the fare of many outrap:e>­Bul their unea iness stems from the un­authorized, ill-ad,ised slalcmrnls of demagogues and \ ole·hunting politi­cians. 1 E,en while i;tanding slanehly al our side in th face of this latt•st Commu­n isl outrage, they cannot help being worried by such propo als as enalor Kno\\ land's that we blockade the China coast, cul off diplomatic relations with Communist countries, and thereby in­' ite the cleslruclion of the entire world. Presidenl Eisenhower and ecretari Dulles hme done much lo inspire con­fidence in us on the part of our allit•s by resisting such reactionary pre sures and 'landing their ground for wise and palienl action. Pre idenl Eisenhower knows thal be­cause of lhe destructi,enes of the hy-drof! en \\eapons. there i>. as he says. "no alternaliH• to pt•ac ... :· I IP is full) a"are that war could he forced upon the \\' esl by reckless Communist action and thal willinμ:ness lo resist aggression is tire besl way lo a\erl aμ:gression. That is a chance the world must lake. In the meantime, we 1nusl pre~erve and use e\Cr)' peaceful aYCnUC or pressure and influence to solve our international problems. In retaliation for lhe unlaw­ful jailing of American soldiers in China. President Eisenhower and Mr. Dulles are folio" ing the course that true -.talcsmanship pre>cribes they are ex­ertinμ: intense diplomatic pressure on the Hed regime in China and they are making the Red squirm.'0 The Chine:;e first announced the jail­ing of our men in tones of arroganl self­assurance. Apparently dismayed by the hornet's nesl o[ disappro\'al which they stirred up, they quickly changed their lone. They ha\'e become almosl apolo­getic in their desperate efforts to e-.­plain and justify their illegal action.14 \Ir. Dulles has said that we musl act "ilhin the franwwork of the United \a­tions Charter. uch action "ill keep the spotliμ:ht of world attention focused on the Communists' outraμ:eous conclucl; and il will pro\ e to the world thal we in America are a oa1w and sober people, dedicated to maintaining world peace al all cost . IL will pro\e to our allies beyond any doubl that we are worthy of the sup­port they haw offered us, and it will cemcnl the unily of lhc free world into a formidable force againsl any similar Communist action in the future. * There, in quick review, are two sides of a Facts Forum question: "Should the United tales im1>ose a blockade of ommunist hina to force the release of American prisoners?" (Bibliography on Page 39) -Wide World Photos ( Upper> United Nations Command negotiators at Panmunjom in summer of 1952: (lowed Red truce team at Korean truce talks. Page 5 A question of universal interest PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE Is this the cure-all for the world's ills? Is there any possibility of negotiating a settlement of major differences be· tween us and the Soviet Lnion and thereby achieving peaceful coexistence? As usual, let's look at the question from two opposite sides, taking first the arguments of some who say "Yes." • • No O:>E can deny that there is a new look in Soviet foreign policy. Even if we do not have faith in the sincerity of that new policy, we should do what we can to encourage it-without, of course, letting down our defenses. uppose that Russia's new, relatively conciliatory policy is a hoax: If we can keep them talking about peace among their own people, with their own satellites, and in the United ations, we at least have a chance of leading them toward a genuinely peaceful attitude. The alternative is a ghastly war-a war which, as Winston Churchill said, would leave us, even if victorious, the victors over a world in ruin. Actually, the Soviet cold war offen­sive has diminished in a startling way •ince the death of Joseph talin.• The East German revolt and the So­viet decrees in the autumn of 1953, designed to raise food production, pro­vided real evidence that conditions in­• ide the oviet nion were compelling Kremlin leaders to concentrate on in· ternal economic problems. In Austria, the Ru sians have re­moved barriers to movement in and out of their occupation zone. They have exchanged ambassadors with Vienna. In Turkey, the Rus ians have aban­doned their postwar claims to certain Turkish areas bordering Ru'5ia, and they have dropped their demands for military bases on the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. Rus ia has renewed normal diplo­matic relations with Yugoslavia. In Czechoslovakia, American news­man William Oatis was freed after two year in prison.• The oviets even apologized to Eng­land for shooting down a British bomb­er in the Berlin sector. These are only a few of the remark­able incidents in Europe and in the Near East. Tn the Far East, the successful stop­ping of two major shooting wars, in Korea in 1953 and in Indochina in 1951]., by the process of peaceful nego­tiation, are proof that something has caused a basic alteration in Soviet plans. What is it? There are some oh' iou' cau,t» for the change in oviet policy. One is the stand of the United Nations in Korea. By promptly meeting oviet aggression -Wide World Photo UN Security Council heard debate on American complaint that Soviet fi9hters shot down a U.S. Navy bomber aff Sibe ria Sept. 3. Page 6 in Korea "ith the combined strength the free nations of the world, we di ruptPd the oviet timetable of conqu and proH·cl that aggrt'"ion i' no Ion profitable.' It is \Pry apparPnl that the free"~' strategy of holding the line aga1 Communi't ag{!rt'"ion ha' begun to f off. Extreme unrest in Ru sia and in~ satellite states, plus the harmful efTe! of the American embargo of strate goods from East·West trade and U economic drain of maintaining a " economy, have forced the Soviet lead1 to slow down, if not halt, their progr of imperialistic aggression. They . now in the po ition of needing to I in peace with the rest of the world order to maintain and stabilize 11b they have.• Another apparent reason for the 11 look in oviet policy is the death Stalin. The oviet system was built the dictator principle, and there bound to be an altering of course wb dictators are changed or when the lion is passing through the period <"hang!' from one dirtato"hip to anot~ In his oration al talin's funef l\lalenkov said that the oviet U11 "elcomes trade and business relati< "ith all the world. MALENKOY'S NEW LINE Po Min Wa! prot f ul wit! of gua of I I nalo abo the Am istr Ma Bri cifi We of cha agE wa· Acl am int 1 Co CH hortly after that, Malenkov ope> of up talin's hoard of gold and sent h fo1 drl'ds of millions of dollars of it \Ve,tern countries for the purcha,e fo1 local currency to be uged in bu) tar Western goods. iar A delegation of British husines'!1' pro "as im itl'cl to \1o,C'O\\ a11d gi\en a~ suo orders and promises for four hun wi million clolla"' \\Orth of British gll' ac choring the 111·,t thn•e ) l'ars. It was at the request of the 0 1 that the l nitNl i\ations Economir Social Council took up the probleO' Ea,t·Wcst trade in its annual rnef 1 in '\pw York in pril, 1951. Again, it was at the urging off O\ icb that the nited ations nomic Commi .. ion for Europe Jl'l~1 Crnern in May, 1951, and did ser1 construrti\e, ac omplishing work oO~ problem of freer trade between and West.• History will reserve a high plac' honor for the Western statesmen ·1 St ticularly merican and British Pr have managed to mel'l the Ru•sian" ~ way in their talk and deeds about pe F FACTS FORUM NEWS, JanuarJI• bined strength e world, we J: table of conqu :.sion is no Ion hat tlu\ free ,\o the I inc agai has bq!Un tor Russia and in i 1e harmful effel 1argo of strate ;t trade and V 1aintaining a • the Soviet leadr alt, their progr ·ession. They ~ )f needing to I .t of the world nd stabilize wb eason for the I1' r is the death stem was built le, and there ng of course "·h I or when the I 1gh the period 1torship to anoth Stalin's funer the oviet lJ111 bu iness relati NEW LINE Malenkov ope gold and sent h · dollars of it H the purcha•e oe used in bu' 3ritish busincs•fl' )\\ and gi\'t'll nr' 1 for four hund1 .h of British Fo e years. ue l of the So' ions Economic up the probleJll its annual me ·ii, 1951. the urging ofc nited 'ations ~ for Europe n,~t )1, and did sell ilishing work o~f tradt> hetwecn rve a high plat< crn statesmen f and British ·cl the H u•sians ~ d de ds about pf -Wide World Photo President Eisenhower and British Prime Mini s!er Winston Churchill during their Washington conference on international problems. f~I eoexis~ence - meet them halfway without bemg lulled into a false ense of security, without dropping their guard or rushing into any fooli h acts of appeasement. It was, in effect, omewhat in the nature of calling the Soviets' bluff about wanting freer peaceful trade with the Wes~ that Harold Stassen, chief of '."mer:ca s Foreign Operations Admin- 1strat10n, flew to London and Paris in March, 1954, to work out with the B_ritish and French governments spe­c1 fie agreements for the easing of Easl­\ V est l rade.• Mr. la sen's subsequent e:i:planation of these London and Paris agreements was essentially this: \'either we nor our a ll ies are cha~ging our policy of trade embargo agamst Communi l China. \Ve do not want to repeal or even amend the Battle Act, which forbids us to give aid to '.'ny nation which sends strategic goods 111to Communist countries. With regard lo Russia and the other Communist countries of Europe, how­e, ·er, we are drastically revising the list of goods previous! y defined- and there­fore prohibited-as strategic goods.• Henceforth, such things a tractors for farm use- -but not tractors for mili­~ ar~ use; industrial equipment for civil­ian production- but not for armaments production; and a wide variety of con­st~ mer goods previously forbidden will now be permitted to move in trade acro's the Iron Curtain. By late summer, 1954, we had re- -Wide World Photo President Eisenhower and Secretory of State John Foster Dulles met with French Premier Mendes-France at the White House. FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 moved over 650 items from the list of goods which our previous embargo policy had specifically banned from Ea t-\Vesl trade. This new policy of freer trade con­tains a vast psychological potential for good. For one thing, it steals from the Soviets their propaganda thunder that only they are working for peace. It is a visible and understandable demon­stration to the entire world that we will meet the Soviets halfway in all efforts to achieve peace when they substitute deeds for mere propaganda. Our previous policy of trade embargo did hurt the Soviet economy grievous! y and was at least partially responsible for forcing the oviets to make peaceful ge;,tures and turn their attention to the problems of peace. Having achieved this tremendous al teration in Soviet policy by using our trade embargo as a weap­on against their aggressiveness, we arc. now modifying that trade embargo policy and showing our willingness to encourage the Soviets in peaceful pur­suit .' NO APPEASEMENT This change in our policy is, by no stretch of the imagination, appeasement of the Soviets. It is rather an example of a frank and daring policy of enlight­ened self-interest. \Ve are using our strength, our influence, and our diplo­macy to direct the attention and ener­gic of the Soviet people toward the production and exchange of peaceful goods. As people become more and more occupied with peaceful activities they will think less of war. And as the~ think less of war, the danger of war recedes. When Churchill came to the United Stales in Jw1e, 1954, and urged that we in the \V es tern world should make a good try at peaceful coexistence with the oviets, many thoughtful Americans "ere skeptical. Much of the skepticism vanished two days later, however, when President Eisenhower clarified Amer­ica's po ition. President Eisenhower also be! ieves that peaceful coexistence be­tween the non-Communist nations and the U .. S.R. and Hed China is the hope of the world. He promises that the l'nitcd States will continue lo do any­thing proper to achieve such coexist­ence; but he also vows that this nation "ill not be a party to any treaty that makes anybody a slave.• The Western world's efforts to call the oviet bluff about peace and dis­armament haYe paid off enormously. When the General As embly of the l nited ations convened in New York in the fa ll of 1954, the United States instantly seized the initiative from the oviets by directing the Assembly's attention lo the questions of disarma­ment and peace. For the first time since -Wid• World Photo President Eisenhower with U. S. Ambas­sador to Russia Charles Bohlen. 1946, Soviet delegates in the United Nations have gone along with the United tales, Britain, France, and Canada in a request to the United a­tions to get lo work on disarmament, starting w i th conventional weapons rather than with atomic weapons. Thi is the most startling conce ion to the \Vest which the Soviet Union has ewr made in the United Nations.• One of the mo t remarkable indica­tions of how far we have gone in our determined drive toward peace on earth was the reaction of our President and of the nation in ovember, 1954, when oviet fighter planes shot down an American B-29 off the coast of Japan. AMERICANS KNOW THEIR STRENGTH This is just the kind of incident that can goad a jittery and fearful nation into rash and dangerous action. But today, the American people are sanely and soberly aware of the full measure of their massive strength; and they have calm, wise leadership. They received the news of this Russian outrage with manly and re trained indignation, re­fraining from reckless recrimination and saber-rattling t11at might have broken the calm of real peace which is settling upon the world. President Ei enhower, instead of frothing and Hexing the national mus­cles about this latest oviet atrocity, gave it only passing reference in a press conference that dealt with other matters and in that same conference had th~ good sense and courage to announce that despite such unfortunate incidents, -Wide World Photo President Eisenhower conferred with Dr. Konrad Adenauer during the West German Chancellor's Washington visit. Page 7 Soviets have removed barriers in Austria including the mountain pass between Russian and British sectors at Semmering (above). the world is nearer to a lasting peace today than it has been for many year ." The clamor of right-wing extremist,;, crackpot.;, and inveterate witchhunters make a calm appraisal of Kremlin maneU\·ers rather difTicult. In the enate of the United tales there i' a lit1l1>, hard core o[ \1!'Carth1 · ite., and extreme isolationists who ha~·e been knifing at the whole structure of l\mcrican foreign policy for year:;. They are now in a desperate and embittered mood becau'e they recog­nize their own inability to check thr currents of history. As the world mo1·es painfull) but surelr. behind the leader-hip of dedi­cated and tireless men of vision to­ward a tranquil period of peaceful coexi,lence. the demar:ogue,, 11ho ha1e been shamele"ly feeding on the natural fear' and anxieties of the American people, arc finding themselves cut off from all n•,pectahle 'l1pporl. Consequently. their cries 11 ill become shriller and their invecli1es nastier. But 11e need not worry. The Ei,enhower administration has shown itself quite capable of scorning the catcalls of the i olationisls and super-patriots. Thanks primarily to the fearless, de­termined consistency of American lead­n, hip during the past nine dangerous year-. there i today throughout the world a quickening hope that this era of I nsion and dreadful danger will be transformed into an age of peace and plenty. * * That was one side of the question. X ow let's look at the opposite side-­the arguments of some who DO XOT think that there is any possibility of negotiating outstanding major dif­ferences between the l'nited Stales and the So' iet Union and thereby achie' ing peaceful coexistence. * * * * * THE Commu11i,1 program of world-wide revolution aims lo destroy all existing forms of government so that all of the people on earth can ultimately be ab­' orbed into a great. one-world, ocial­ist socil'ly which will be known as the l nion of oviet ocialisl Republics. Siuce the Bolshevik He1 olution I 1917, there has ne1·er been any modii cation of this program." Communist tactics, of course, altt to meet the requirements of time, pla and circumstance. In every nation Communist find a suitable cloak f their activitie, and they readily chan, that cloak when conditions alter. 1 plact•s like l\ orth Africa, the Cornn nists operate under the cover of natiol alism, whipping up hatred again European colonialism. In the l nitl States, they operate under the cloak internationalism, helping to create co tempt and derision for any display patriotic feeling or national sentimed In places like outh Africa - as America - they are race equalitaria~ always agitating th delicate problel of mixing of races. The Communists, of course, do 1 want lo cure any of the sores which th' find in our society. In fact, they kfl probing them to make them wor,e­keep them throbbing and suppurati1 so that the Communists will always h3 a means of deceiving the innocent a \\inning respectabi lity for themseil• During all the years \\hen we ha' hPPn lr!'alinr: the 01 il'l t) ranni a' legitimate government cwn during~ period when our government was U'1 all thP propaganda mpans at it;; di'po· to create in America a worshipful al tucle to\\ard the oviets as our gall allies; when we were squandering V 11ealth of the nation and the li'e' our soldiers to save the Soi iet [lni from dcotruction Lalin in his bo and puhlic utterances was remindi the Communists of Russia that ~ oviet Union should stand up "agai the remaining capitalist world, aura ing lo itself the oppre. sed cla,se• other countries, raising rc1olt in th• countries ar:ainst the capi tali sts. and­com I wet μ:eoi T in l the ulat ha1 the ciet gle f ro1 ti or I pea Sta lctt1 Co1 whi We W::J I fro tlw e1ent of necessity, coming out e1 111 "ith armed force against the e"ploit ( classes and their f!OH'rnments.''>• of "CLASHES INEVITABLE" Dn ThP clas;;i al sta tement by Lenin, r1 Int hundreds of times by talin and otb ·cl Communist leaders. says "The e,i,lt of the Soviet Hepuh li r s ide hi side 1' imperialist stal l's for a long time i' thinkahlc. One or the other mu•t an« COt lac umph in the encl. And l>Pfore that 1e1 of to lau mo tril CC! ani in at a~ 1h1 Three sce nes of the 1953 East Be rlin revolt against Red rule. Page FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, J Rei olution >een any modi of course, all• ts of time, plad every nation ti itablc cloak r y readily chan litions a Iler. 1ca. the Co111t11 cover of natiol hatred again . Jn the lnil1 1der the cloak ng to create col r any display 1tional se11ti111e1 Africa as ice equalitariad delicate proliitl f course, do 11 ! ores wb ich th 1 fact, they kfl ! them wo n•r­and suppuratil 1 will always ha the innocent a r for them~c1' rs when "e h8' , i!'l l) rann) u, - even during~ rnment was ti!=-1 ·ans al its cli'po· a worshipful al els as our gall ! squandrring U and the I i,c; the Soi iet llni alin in his bo :s was remindi Russia that l stand up ''agni isl world, attrs )ressed claS'e; ng re1 oil in th' capitalists, and· " coming out r1 .inst the exploil' : rnmC"nts.'~ 12 tEYITABLE" ient by Lenin. cir y Stalin and ol ays "Thr exi,tt" c side b) side " a long timr i.; f 1e other mu,l nd hefore that ' -Wide World Photo Dmitry Z. Manuilskl comes, a se ries of frightful clashes be­lwe; n the Soviet Republic and the bour­geois stales is inevitable.'"• . The Cominform, which was founded tn 1917 and which is the new version of the old Communist International form­ul~~ ed its foreign policy in these 'words: Inasmuch as antagonistic classes ha\e been liquidated in the U.S.S.H. and l~e moral-political unity of oviet so­c1et~ has b_een achieved, the class strug­gle 111 all its acuteness has now shifted from the Soviet Union to the interna­tional arena."u In 1950, with the Soviet drive for pra~eful coexistence in full wing, lal111, for the first time, published a letter which he had 'Hillen to Maxim Gorki two decadrs earlier a letter in "hi ch Stalin said: "We arc not against every war .... We are for a liberating, anti-imperial­i- i. re\ olutionary war, although such a war. as is known. nol on ly is not free ~ rom horroro of bloodshed, but ahounds in them." One of the most forthright statemcnh of Soviet policy was made in 19Cl0 h) Dm1try Z. Manuilski, in a speech to the International Students of the Lenin Sc!:ool of Political Warfare, Mosco": War to the hill between Communism and Capitalism is inevitable. Today, of course. \le are not strong enough lo at­tack. Our time will come in 20 or 30 years. To "in we shall need the element of surprise. The hourgeoisie "ill ha\l' lo lw put lo sleep . So we shall begin b1 launching the most spectacular peace mo,emenl on record. There will he elec­trifying 01crtures and unheard-of con­r"~.£ il~..-~ll.i}llil ce"ions. The capitalist countries, stupid ~nd decadent, will rejoice to cooperate 111 their own destruction. They will leap at another chance to be friends. As soon as their guard is down we shall smash them with our clenchc'd fist.'"' That is fairly clear, isn't it? ">ow. if you please, just pause for a FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 moment and let this sink into your mind. This same Manuilski has for years been one of the most prominent figures in the L'nited Nations. In fact, he helped to draft the preamble to the United Na­tions Charter. When he uses the word justice, does he mean the same thing we have in mind, or does he mean lulling us with talk about peacef u I coexistence through the U , and then smashing us with the clenched fist? To us, negotiation means give and take. To the Communists, it means take and hold on to that, until thev can take some more. - If, in order to gel conce"ions from us, they ha1e to make promise>, the Communists "ill make them. Then they simply repudiate their O\\n promises. · We cannot repudiate ours. We are hog-tied hy our O\\n ethics. -Wide World Photo Soldiers and sailors read "Truce Ends Ko­rean War" on moving sign in New York. The long-awaited armistice came after three years and one month of undeclared war. If we should abandon our ethics and adopt the methods of the Communists in order to be less handicapped in our negotiations with them, then we would become like the Communists; we would already have lost the truggle to main­tain our way of life. The only way lo avoid this dilemma is lo refuse any more negotiations with the Communists. When we sign some agreement I ike the Korean armistice, and then pretend that we are shocked because the Com­mun isls immediately begin to violate the very terms which they insisted on, we a re kidding ourselves. We knew they \\ere going to violate the Korean arm­istice agreement, just as we now know that they are violating the agreements in Indochina. The Communists ha'e been doing this sort of thing since 1917 ·and boasting about it." one of the information which we now have about Communist methods is new. It isn't something we have discov­ered in the past few years. Wt"'ve had it all along. Roo evelt knew all about Communist tactics. In fact, official State Depart­ment studies detailing the history and the methods of the world-wide Commun­ist re,·olutionary program were urgently called to Roosevelt's attention before he recognized the Soviets in 1933, thus saving them from attack by Japan, sav­ing them from collapse by internal re­' olt, and providing them protected beachheads in our own country for in­filtrating our own institutions and gov­C" rnmenl.18 Our top go,ernment officials knew "hat was going on during World War Tl, when we were trading eleven billion dollars of American lend-lease for Soviet spies who filched our secret in radar and atomic energy. We knew all about Communists be­fore we met with them in conferences in Teheran, in Yalta, in Potsdam; before \IC got into the United ations with them; before General George C. Mar­shall went out to China lo force Chiang Kai-shek to negotiate with them; and before our Secretaries of late-Mr. Acheson and Mr. Dulles met with them al Paris. at Berlin, at Geneva. 800,000,000 INTO SLAVERY It was in conference and cooperation with Western leaders that the oviets and their puppets negotiated eight hun­dred million people in Europe and Asia into slavery. E,·ery conference we have with the Communists is a false pretense on our part that we don't know what the Com­munists are after; therefore we must -Wide World Photo General Mark W. Clark affixes his sl9na· ture to Korean armistice dacument. Page 9 ha\e conferences with them, must sla\ in the United l'iation with them, s~ that we'll know what they are up to-so that we can discuss points of connict as thev arise. iron out differences, and set­tle 'things peacefully." There are only two ways to Ji,·e peace­fully with the oviets. One way is to let them have what they want. This was the way of Roosevelt. Roosevelt told William Bullitt that he thought he could get along with the Communists if he gave them everything they wanted and asked nothing in return. If we feel that we simply cannot lirn without dealing and mingling with the oviets, we can negotiate a peaceful settlement of the world's difficulties at once and enter an almost endless age of peaceful coexistence--and sla\ery. All 11e ha,·e to do is give up, let the oviets take O\er, and establish the great o­cialist one-world which they ha\e been openly planning since 1917.n After talin's death, Malenkov in a speech made a few vague remarks about peaceful coexistence of capitalism and ocialism; and all the soft heads of the West began lo wag: "Ahhh ! Now we can get along with them." uch world-renowned statesmen as Winston hurchill not only dismissed thirty-seven years of ommunist treach­ery but also failed to note the major portion of Malenkov's speech. ll:"hile talking about peaceful coexist­ence. :\1alenkov also ays that commun­ism will "rebuff any policy hostile to t?e ynion of So,iet Socialist Repub­lics. " Before long we will see: The O\ iets will decide that the policies of Tndia. Indone ia, Burma, Japan, are hostile. These nation (and after them, others) will go the way of Estonia, Latvia, Lith­uania. Poland, Eastern Germany, Czech­oslovakia, part of Au tria, iiungary, Rumania, Albania, Tibet, China, Indo­china. '\'orth Korea all of which are now enjoying peaceful coexistence 11 ith the O\iet Union. ONE PROVEN WAY There is one proven way for us to live peacefully on the same planet with the oviets without being de,·oured by them: exclude them from our society and have nothing lo do with them. That's what we did from 1917 to 1933, and it worked extremely well. We did not ha,·e any wars with the Communists. hecau•e without our help without be­ing able to meddle in our affairs and di,rupt and weaken our own policies­the ommunists didn't ha\e enough strength to make war·." We cannot honorably negotiate all or any out landing differences between us and the oviets. Every time we enter a conference with Communists we know before 11e start that we are not going to win anything. The only question is: How much will we lose this time? Page 10 -Wide World Photo General George C. Marshall !left l during his meeting with Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai·shek in 1945. \1rs. Eleanor Hoosevelt entertains o­' iet officials at polite leas and then talks about how really nice they are when you get lo l.no11 them. Adlai Ste,enson talks about the need for peaceful conferenc<'s to settle dif. ferences 11ith the oviets. On the same day that ovil't jets shoot down an American plane off the coast of Japan, American Ambassador Charles Bohlen attends a gay party in \1osco11 and drinks vodka toasts to the success of the Communist re\ olution and lo the bloody butchers who have enslaved over a third of the world's people and who were responsible for <101.000 American casualties in Korea." ecretary of tale Dulles excuses Bohlen for wining and dining with the gangste" who are killing our men and plotting the destruction of our nation by saying that Bohlen hadn't had time lo think it O\er or consult with Washing­ton. President Eisenhower dismisses the \\hole affair by saying, in effect: Yes, it's had; but don't worry! We're going to have peace with the oviets, because their beha' ior on thi occasion has been much more conciliator) than on previous occa>ions when the' shot clown our planes. . Day after da} in the l nited '\ation,. American representatives try lo wheecllt• the O\ icts into getting on the American gra' y train to participate in the Tntcr­national Atom Pool. which is a scheme for giving away to the rest of the world fissionable materials produced in A mer­ican atomic energy plants with American tax money-materials whose scarcity or abundance may ultimately mean life or death for the l'nitcd tales.'" What, in heaven's name, is wrong? There is none so blind a those "h "ill not sec; none so deaf as those " will not hear. We know what the oviets are ai what they are after; yet we go on pr tending to believe that they are tf opposite of 11hat we know them to he. Tf we would maintain sufficient arU aments for our own national defen­close up all Communist embassies ai constilar posts in the l.lnitcd talcs. a1 get the United Nations headquarters o of this country· thus eliminating l pri,ilcged residence and travel ""' Communist agents of a ll kind , from' over the world, now enjoy here· ' could ha\e pence, American style. \lost of the di,trc>>ing problem• the great cold war could be sohed in matter of months if America's top lea crs would read and respect an old pro erb: " lfe who cooperates with the cir• "ill be carried off hy the de, ii." * * Bibliography l "Crowing Prr«o;urrs for East.West Tra.di' The Vatio11, \lar. 20, 1954, p. 238. 2 "Captive Returns," New.~week, May 1953, p. 80. 3 lf'orld Almanac, 1954. 4 ''Where . S. and Britain Stand 1'0' (Text of statements by Sir Winston Ch chill), ll. S. Neus & World Report, JulY 1951, p. 5.3. 5 "'\Jo"cow Opens Trade Offensive," Bu.~in If eek, \lay 9, 1953, pp. 166-168. •"Red Trade the U. S. Stand" (Inter" with I larold StaS'en by Ernest K. Lindlt' \eusiceek, \lar. 1, 1951, p. 31. 7 "New . . Plan for Trade with Rrd< U. S. '""-' & lf"orlcl Neport, Apr. 23, 101-108. 8 (/. S. New• & w·orld Report, July 9, I (Tr"Xt of Ei ... rnho,\rr-Churrhill ..,tntrnH'11 p. 57. 9 "Pnrtnrr!;hip for Peare," hy ecretnrl • late John Fo>ter Outl•·'· State DeparttT' Bulleti11, Ort. 4, 1954, p. 471. IO Text of Eisenhowrr Pre~.; Conference, ' York Times, ov. 11, 1951. . 11 "Dulles Explain!-i lJ. S. Fort·i~n J'oh (Text of nn article prepared by err•1 of late John Fo<ter Oulies for the A, i-.c;;ue of Foreif{n Afiairs), U. . Nell.,;~ lf"orld Report, "•r. 26, 1954, pp. 74-•' 12 "Stalin on Revolution/' I listoricu~. for Affairs, January, 19.W. 13 Collecwl /f"orks of Vladimir Jlyich Lf quoted in Lenin, by David chub, puhli~ by Doubleday and Co., Inc., ew ' 1918. 11 u oviet lntrrnntionnlic;;m," by David J. lin, The ~·ew f,eatler, Jan. 17, 1918. 15 "Communism fl.lean,;; War," hy l)aviJ Oallin, American Afercury, October, ]Q~ 16 1 American Afercury, No,·emher, 1951, P· 17 Vew l'ork Time•, May 30, 1918, P;,i '" Foreign Relations of the United Swie• (II O\iet Union), 1933-1939, p. 110. 19 uWhy ot Nep;otiate with the Ru~c;ian11;?" Ernest T. Weir, Harper',, December, 1 20 "Is a ettlement with Ruci~ia Po!' ibh: ?~ Edward Crank•haw, New York Times 1 azine, May 1, 1919. D Cart Ir take plos of "mu1 whc clec1 p nrr wid litc1 thal en• as lua saf1 ing J th al pro leg• plll PU< act the J rint 1n O\~ the 21 Foreii;n Relation-;, pp. 731-732. "rt 22 World Almanac, 1954. at 23 "U. . el• Aside Atom Materials in riq Pian," Dallas Morning Nein, "lov. 16. I FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, I 1d as those "h eaf as those " Soviet are ar :t we go on P~ al they are ti 1w them to be. n sufficient arn rntional defen· sl embassies ar nited Stales, ar headquarters o eliminating t nd travel whi 11 kind , from enjoy here· ·• :rican style. ;ing problem~ Id be sohcd 1~ nerica's top le• pert an old pro s with the de• he devil." * 1phy r East-West Trad< l54, p. 238. 'ewsu:eek, May Jritain tancl r"~ r Sir Winston C 'l'or/d Report, Jul! Offensive," Busin ), 166-168. ;. Stand" (Jntt'f' 1 f • Ernest K. l.indlt YI, p. 31. Trade with Rt Report, Apr. 23, I Report, July 9. I' ~ hurrhill ... tnu·mr" ·e," by Serretan· ('~, .'Hate Departrr' ~;.._;7~~nlerrnrr, \ 195·1. .. . Forrip;n Poli repared by erret. Du lies for the f., rirs), U. S. Ne• 1 '. !6, 1951, pp. 74- j ," llistoricu't, fort 'ladimir Ilyich L.•~ avid Schub, pubh~ :0., Inc., New ' •m," by Da,id J, Jnn. 17, 1918. War" hy On\·iii cury, 'ortober, 19" ovember, 1951, P· 1!ay 30, 19IB, P~ he United • ta tr• ( 939, p. 110. • .vith the Ru,.~ian~?~ ':Jer'.5, December, 1,. Russia Pos ible ?fl! lew York Time.< '· 731·132. ~m Materials in ri' g Neu:•, Nov. 16, ~WS, January, ?• ?• ?• ?• JOE McCARTHY Do you think that enator Joe l\Ic­Carthy has done more harm than good? In tlw tradition of Facts Forum, let\ take a look al both sides of this ex· plosiwly contro\ er ial question. * First lo review some arguments of those who thi nk that McCarthy "is" doing more harm than good. IF enator McCarthy "an ls lo be th shini.ng knight in a fight against com­munism, he ought lo be a personality "hose "ords we can believe and whose deeds "c respect. Pi;turcs of \1cCarthy as a tail gun­ner 1n the l\larinc air force ha,e been '~idely di>trihuted, and his campaign ht1•rature in 1916 presented him in that f~ghting capacity. In reali,ty, how· !'\Cr, 1t appears that McCarthy s car!'!'l' as a fighting, flying Marine was ac· tually limited to a few comparati,cly saf1• flights which he made while serv· ing as an Intelligence Officer. \lcCarthy has never denied the legend that he was wounded in the Pacific probably because l\lcCarthy start d the legend. Y cl \lcCarthy docs not hold the Purple Heart. And he has ne\er re­pudiated the story that his leg was actually injured in a prank far from the fighting lincs.1 . Joe l\1cCarthy resigned from the l\Ia­~ 1ncs lo return lo his career as a judge 111 Wisconsin long before the war was O\er in fact, many weeks before the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa ?. ?. ?. ?. took place. Yet, when he ran for the enate against Robert l\I. LaFollelle, Jr., he evidently did not discourage the campaign tales about the fighting J\fa. rine who was wounded in the war.1 While campaigning for the United tales enate, Joe McCarthy failed lo resign as a Circuit Judge, as the land­ard o[ the stale of Wisconsin required. The Wisconsin Lale Board o[ Bar Commissioners has officially described this behavior of McCarthy as a breach of official lrusl.2 When McCarthy was first elected to the Senate, he actually received the support of the Communist party in " ' i,­consin, and he was in the cnate four years before he e'er raised the issue about Communists in gowrnmcnt. Dur­ing those four years he went along with the bi·partisan foreign policy which he later described as treasonable. In 19 17, for example, McCarthy voted in favor of increasing foreign aid. Tn 1918 he Yoted for the Marshall Plan. ln 1919 he Yotcd to ratify the NATO Pat. l'iol until 1950, when he had suddenly become known as a champion of anti­communism, did l\1cCarlhy enter the ramp of the isolationists who have con­demncd eYery feature or the Truman· Ach'eson-Eiscnhowcr foreign policy. l\kCarthy made his first public com· ments about communism on February 9, 1950, in a speech before a women's Hepublican club of Wheeling, Wesl Virginia. According lo one of his mosl -Wide World Photo .. Special Army Counsel Joseph Welch lteftl labeled Senator McCarthy (right) as being reckless and cruet" during McCarthy-Army hearing. Lt, Cot. John Murray of the Army is at center. FACT FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 outspoken cnt1cs, former Senator Wil· liam Benton of Connecticut, l\IcCarthy in that \Yhet·ling spee!'h said that he had a list of 205 nam!'s of people who had been made kno" n to the Sc retary of late as being members of the Com· mun isl party, hut "ho 1H'\!'rthclc'5 were still working and shaping policy in the talc Department. 3 The follo\\ing e\cning, February 10, 1950, when intcniewcd on a radio pro· gram in all Lake City, l\IcCarthy said that he had the names of 57 card­carrying member. of the Communist party "ho worked in the talc De­partnwnt. Thi' '"" a pal!'nl fabehood, because Communists. or ('0UC.C, do nol go around carrying and exhibiting party membership cards. l\1cCarthy has never been able to produce the 57 cards, or to pro'e that 57 members of the State Department C\er carried th m.3 On February 20, 1950, when he made his si'l.-hour speech on th floor of the Senate, \IcCarthy no longer spoke o[ card-carrying members, but merely of loyally cases. At that Lime he claimed lo present a list of 81 who either worked in the late Department or had formerly worked for it, or were em­ployed in other gO\crnmcnl agencies and in the United 1ations. Ile actually referred lo only 76 instead of 81, and he did not specify whirh o[ the 81 were the 57 whom he had mentioned a few days before.• '\IcCarthy conceded in that cnate speech that the material he presented wa old and had been available for a considerable amount of time. GUILTY OF EXAGGERATION l\IcCarthy's disregard of fact and truth ha\C kept even hi mo t devoted fol­lowers busy explaining hi inaccuracies. McCarthy's foremost apologist - Wil­liam F. Buckley - had to admit in his most recent book that McCarthy was guilty of exaggeration in 38 sp cific cases, and that he had called people Communi ls who at worst were appar­ently fellow travelers.' Page 11 When '.\lcCarthy first got on the anti­Communist bandwagon, he was a mem­ber of the minority party, and played only a minor role on the subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations. The grave danger of his emotionalism, his name-calling, his insinuations, his numerous irresponsibilities, and his in­competence as an investigator, became grimly apparent to the whole nation, howeYer. after the Hepublican 'ictory of 1952. In the Republican-controlled Congress. \TcCarthy, now a member of th<' majority party. wa' no longer mere­ly a noisy nuisance. He was Chairman of the enate Committee on Government Operations - and thus one of the most powerful men in Washington.' His greatest fia•co perhaps wa his ime ligation of the Voice of America. Let us consid r a f cw specific cases. \\' ith regard to the Latin-American desk of the Voice of America, 1cCar­thy's charges of pro-communism were refuted by an overwhelming mass of documentary evidence. McCarthy had to permit the evidence to be filed, but he did not make it a part of the record. '.\IcCarthy's charges against the Latin­American desk were televised. The re­buttal was not. Even enator Mundt, second ranking member of the McCar­thv Committee, and not known as a foe o( \IcCarthy, said that the committee was wasting a lot of time.• The charges against the French de k of the Voice of America were spread on the record, but they were not fol­lowed up. If there were any truth in the charges - if there were any po si­bility of prO\ing them McCarthy had a deep obligation to subpoena all those who had been named before the com­mittee. In a wry large number of cases he did not do o. Troup '.\lathews. Acting hief of the French de•k. was accused of inviting a new Voice of America employee to join a \1arxist colony, but l\lathews was never called to a public session to de­fend him•elf against this damaging rhaqre. -Wide World Photos One of many climaxes in 1950 Washin9ton heorin9s on charges of Communist infiltra­tion in the State Department came when Owen Lattimore (right) mode complete de­nial af allegation by Senator McCarthy lleft l that Lattimore was " Russia's top spy" in the United States. Page 12 -Wide World P Anti-McCarthy pickets marched outside the Hotel Astor in New York City where Sen• McCarthy was principal speaker at a dinner honoring Roy Cohn. appl. !'an citizen, but he shamefully abu• aggr his power as a congressional inve. path A McCarthy witness charged that the French de k of the Voice of America had broadcast an entire speech by Jacob \Ialik, oviet delegate to the United '.\Tations, without comment or rebuttal. '.\IcCarthy never called the appropriate officials of the Voice to give them a chance lo answer or comment on this charge which had been made, of course, in publi testimony.• Edwin Kretzmann, policy advi er of the Voice of America. who had hurried lo the hearing' of his own free will, by unmistakable insinuation was accused of pro-communism, but wa not called again to answer speci fie charges. Sena­tor McCarthy went so far as to suggest that Krctzmann followed the Daily Worker line hy attacking yngman Rhee, Presidrnt of South Korea. Kretzmann e,plained that this attack in\'olved one single script which had been approved by his deputy, Gordon Knox, on a day on which he himself was away from his office. Krctzmann offered lo display hundreds of pro-Rhee, pro-South Korea scripts, for the record. Ile was never given an opportunity to do so.• But Krctzmann was intensely ques­tioned about the well-known author, Bertram D. Wolfe, who then was chief of the ideological advisory unit of the Voice of America. This most definitely left the impression with a large number of Americans that Wolfe might be a Communist in di,guise. Yet, Bertram D. Wolfe had left the ommunist party at least fifteen years before and had con­sistently criticized communism. It is true that Wolfe hobnobbed with other ex-Communists who were in the ocial­isl camp. It is the right of enator Mc­Carthy to regard socialism as another form of subversion. If so, he ought to ay it. By clearly implying that he sus­pected Bertram D. Wolfe of still work­ing for communi'm without giving any substantial proof for these suspicions and al the same time failing ever to call Bertram Wolfe to the witness stand, McCarthy not only defamed an Ameri-gator.• view McCarthy's interrogation of James A Wechsler, editor of the New York f£1' placi was of the same nature. ~ 1 Wechsler's own writings prove tf N cc he was fighting communism long bef eu i\lc arthy ever started. As early opin 19·10, Wechsler wrote a book on Jo the L. Lewis in which he exposed the sne.• ti oin\] ways of ommunist infi ltration 1 ~ C labor unions. hart \ hen MC'Carthy s:ot Wechsler on t av( w.i tness stan d , \:vvr e!'h, s Ie r naturalI y tr nmua n to show proof of his anti-commun1' ci Ile offered as an exhibit a statefll' issued by the Central ommittee of 1 Communist party in 1952, criticiZ1 of /, him along with the Reuthers and Dub skys. McCarthy had the gall to e\·er Wechsler whether he himself had " T ten that Communist statement.' thi McCarthy's treatment of Wechskr· Dav the cours(' of what was presumed to thor a congrc"ional in\estigation, was sho' mat ing e\ en to people who have other• -Wide World' Denver Post Publisher Palmer Hol" FACTS FORUM NEWS, Januarl/• J FA -Wide World Photo Sign-carrying supporters of Senator McCarthy, members of the Joint Committee Against Communism in New York, joined the group which t raveled to Washington to protest the censure move against the Wisconsi n Senator. hamefully ahu" ;ressional in,·e~ applauded McCarthy's anti-Communist aggressiveness and who have little sym­pathy for Wechsler's political point of view.7 ·ation of James A congressional hearing is hardly the ~ New York fo place lo give vent to personal opinions Jre. on newspapers. But McCarthy, al the ·itings prove it Wechsler hearing, said, regarding the unism long bcf Ne.w. Y~rk Post, "Your paper in my ed. As early opi111on is next to and almost paralleling . a book on Jo the Daily Worker.'" ,,,posed the sne. . '.\1cCarthy operates on the presump­infiltration 1i lion that anyone who criticize Joe Mc- Carthy is a Communist. If he does not t wr ·h ·I r 011 t have the courage to say so directly, he ' w cc s e ma t d . b . f d . 1 II tr nages o o 1l y rn erence an 111- er natura y . nucndo 1 anti-commun1' • chibit a statenJ' UNFAIR PRESS CLAIMED C~~;itte~ .0~1~ McCarthy claims that the newspapers 1 , cnticJ b of America do not give him a fair press euthers and Du 1 that they color, twist, and distort the gall to e\erything he does and says. himself had "' There is a small grain of truth in tatemcnt.' thi . McCarthy complaint; hut Elmer ml of Wechsler, Davi', the eminent journalist and au­as pre urned to thor, has told the whole truth of the igation, was sh matter and put it in proper conlcxt.8 rho ha' e other• -Wide World' sher Palmer HoY' EWS, January, J William F. FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 1 n his most recent best-selling book, Elmer Davis points out that on the Mc· Carthy is ue, newspapers and radio news reporters have a responsibility to in­terpret and explain the news they re­port. 8 The l\1cCarthy technique i so suc­ccssf ul in confounding a small fact with a big fiction, of coloring a little truth with a great lie, that innocent readers haYe no way o[ evaluating what Mc­Carthy says. Elmer Davis holds, there­fore, that newspapers should mix inter­pretations with naked Iact when report· ing McCarthy - should present their McCarthy coverage in such a way as lo help the readers make a true evalua­tion of McCarthy. Elmer Davis has fearlessly recommended that the news reporters of America handle the Mc· Carlhy news in this way, even i[ it violates a fundamental principle of journalism even if it brings the edi­torial page lo the f ronl page.' In one brief sentence, Elmer Da,·is sums up the whole problem of reporting 1\k arthy news: "l\1orc and more ne" smen, in press and radio both, are coming lo realize that ... [they] must deH·lop a form o[ reporting which put into context what men like McCarthy ha\r to say."8 Palmer lloyt, publisher of the Dent•er Post, shares Elmer Da' is' point of 'ie". 1 loyt, in fact, has issued a memorandum tl'lling the staff of the Den1w l'o.1/ ho" lo treat the news about l\k arthy so that the readers of the Denl'er Post will not be decei,cd by '\lcCarlh) .8 "\!any charges made by reckless or impulsi' e public officials," Palmer Hoyt hao told the staff of the Denrer Post, "cannot and should not be ignored, but news stories and editorials can be pre· 'ented in such a manner that the read· ing public will be able lo measure the real worth or value and the true mean· in~ of the torics."8 ff l\!cCarthy had actually 1mcoyered a great army of hidden Communists, or had supported any e£fectivc anti-Com· munisl legislation, it might be difficult Lo giYe a categorical answer to the qucs· Lion of whether he has done more harm than good. But inasmuch as most of the cases "hiC'h \lcCarthy hao eyer mentioned had been thoroughly investigated and re­ported before \1cCarLhy e\Cr got hold of them; and inasmuch a McCarthy, by his reckless distortions and brutal slanders of innocent people, has created grayc suspicions about the whole anti· Communist movement in America - not to mention the national fear, hys· teria, suspicion, and mutual distrust which he has caused it can hardly be denied by any reasonable man that Joe l\IcCarthy has done infinitely more harm than good. * * That was one side of the question. Here is the other side-arguments of some who do "not" think that McCarthy is doing more harm than good. * * • • • S l'iCE Joe McCarthy made his first anti-Communist speech in 1950, the number one objecli\'e of the Communist party C. .A. has been lo destroy :\lc­Carthy - to discredit him so completely that no one will belie\'e wlrnt he say ; to make his name a synonym for ir· redeemable evil; and lo keep him so in­' ohed in side battles, def nsi\'e rear guard action , and tangential issues that he simply will not ham the time or energy for carrying on an effective rarnpaj~n against communism.9 The :'11cCarthy issue has more clearly demonstrated the terribly effecti\e pow· er of the Communist influence in Ameri· can life than any other phenomenon in the past thirty years. The Communist party itself, made up of a relatiwly small group of quite shabby people "ho are generally de- -Wide World Photo Senator and Mrs. Joseph McCarthy look over a booklet entit led "Th row the Bum Out," containing excerpts of articles de­nouncing him in the Communist Daily Worker. Paire 13 -Wide World Photo Wisconsin Senator McCarthy (right ! talks with Troup Mathews Cleft) , Acting Chief of the French VOA desk, following Mathews' testimony before McCarthy's committee hearings into alleged sabotage of Voice of America programs. spi>cd by the American public and who occupy a rather dubious legal position in our society, ha\e yet managed to call tlw signals and direct the plays on one side of the most bpectacular domes­tic political and ideological battle that has ewr been fought on the American ~cene. COMMUNIST COINS " McCARTHYISM" A Communist writer in the Daily Worker fi r:;t coined the word "~lc­Carthyi, m." In a ranting, semi-literate article. he made McCarthyism out as wor-e than all of the other evils kno\\ n to man. :'>ow, the Daily Worker is such a silly, ob,iously unreliable and recog­nizably evil rag that no respectable American pays any attention lo it.10 Within a few day after the Mc­Carthyism term had first >hown up in the Daily Worker, howeH'r, it began to show up in some of the biggest, most "idely respected, and highly influential magazines and newspapers in America - not in the conle\t o[ violent distor­tions and exaggerations that character­ize the Daily fl7 orker, hut in urbane, restrained, polished, and convincing pre-entations. Before long, perfectly re­pectable preachers. college professors, public speaker,, stud<·nts writing themes. !'ommentators. and editorial writers - untold thousands of people who are called upon to C\[lr<'ss ideas and who drm> on the great respected sources of information for help - were uncon­,. riously and innocently following the Communist party line by decrying '\k­Carthyi,. m.10 Let some prominent person or organi­zation try to come to '\1cCarthy's de­fense, and the Communist party in the ,.ame way •els the line o[ attack in the Daily If orker. The line i filtered into the great media of communi ation until speaker-, radio and television commen­tator" letter writers, and editorializers Page 14 all O\er the l nited tale are hammer­ing the same theme.10 Whereas the primary objective of this tremendou smear ampaign against '\lcCarthy is to discredit and destroy him, a very important econdary ob­jectirn is to create diversionary activity Lo draw attention from communi m itself and to keep America's anti-Com­munist force occupied, not in fighting communism, but in defending them­selves, lo keep Joe McCarthy occupied in lawsuits, hearings, any thing that will keep him away from his anti-Commu­nist work.11 For example, one lie about McCarthy that has been told by every anti-Mc-arthy newspaper and magazine in the United tat s is that in collecting 10,- 000 from the Lustron Company for writing a pamphlet on housing, Joe Mc­Carthy did something dishone t. The transaction was quite open, honorable, and abo,e-board. McCarthy proved as much when he sued the yracuse Post­• tandard newspaper for libel and col­lected a large sum of money from them and obliged them Lo print a complete retraction. '\ow, every other newspaper in the country that has printed that Luslron lie about McCarthy could be sued in the same way, and Joe could collect from them. nd they know it. \et they continue to print the lie. Why doe>n't Joe su<' them? If Joe \TcCarthy sued e\erybody who tells lies about him, Joe '\IcCarthy would spend the rest of his life tending lo his own libel suits and wouldn't e\·en ha,·e time lo pay an occasional visit to the enale, much less !'Onduct Communist investigations.12 NO STONE UNTURNED ince 1950, some of the wealthiest and mo,.l powerful intellectual and political forces in America haH' b<•en arrayed against Joe Mc arthy. The anti-Mc-arthyitcs ha,·e left no stone unturned. They have spent millions of dollars dig up anything about McCarthy th they could find. Joe has been i1ne> gated, officially and unofficially, by P1 vale individuals, heavily-financed P Yale groups, by public bodies, by gt ernmental agencies, and b) congr' sional committees. Both Truman a1 Ei enhower have used all the power Ill the prestige o[ the presidency aga1r him. Leading figures in both hous~~ Congress and in both major pohUC parties have done everything in tht power to pin something on Joe l\1cC: thy. Y el Joe has not yet been leg~ charged with any crime or crim•~ misbehavior; and not one candal scandalous act has been pro,·cn agair him.13 After four years o[ such power efforts lo gel Joe McCarthy, Joe ~I Carthy i still up and about, and l~ shou ld convince anyone that Joe's sk1 are reasonably clean.13 . When McCarthy got up in WheelJJ West Virginia, in February, 1950, 8 made his first anti-Communist sprt l\lcCarthy apparently did not know '' much about communism. I [e had so~ damaging facts, however, and he P his finger on a spot that to the Co munist conspiracy in America wa~ raw nerve: the American talc Dep81 mcnt. The s reams of rage and P that followed Joe's first anti-Com nist speech seemed to baffle him much as they did anyone else." McCarthy suddenly discovered tb he had a bear by the tail, and he ha~ let go yet. all an eno 10\'abo mar one mur The mar con ing seni unf, peo th al bee ice. ere~ ti or abo Cor c anC moCai ~ bee spi of ger rea wh CO\ It is quite true that in the bewild lea ing days which fo llowed the Wheel· speech, when McCarthy was badger' interviewed, and cross-examined al e1' turn, he did make loose, <'tll"<'l<'S'· • exaggerated statements. He talked a~ Communi ls when he meant suspc Communi ts. lle talked about 'I when he meant people who should im·estigated for espionage. But e\cJl those days, when Joe Mc arthy groping and learning, he did not snl' pa any innocent people, and he ha' i tat smeared any since. th1 When McCarthy returned to \ra· nei inglon after that first anti-Commoi tn J litt cor is pai enf en1 rel mt lib speaking Lour in 1950, he found 1 ~~ hP had suddenly acquin•d a big gr• of powc•rful and determined enetnir· the l ' nited tales enale. They had an sic in ready taken up e\Cry minor mi~·1 • lhi menl and error that '\1cCarthy had 111• of and had fashioned them into wen) wi to prove that \1c arthy was a liar he a scoundrel." we They demanded that Mc arthy 11' all the Communists in the tate partment. Joe didn't want to JI names because he did not ha\l' r elusi'e evidence. lie • aid he didn't'' to run the risk of harming peopl~ might be pron-n innocent after 1111 ligation. II that McCarthy wanted FACTS FORUM NEWS, Januar11> J we ca ca hi ~o F ms of dollars t l\1cCarth y th 1as been invf' officially, by P ily-financed P bodies, by go nd by C'ongr1 th Truman ar nil the power ~r ·esidency agau 11 both house' 1 major politi< :rything in tht g on Joe l\1c yet been leg~ ime or cri1111r . one candal. :n proven aga•I ,f such power1 :Carthy, Joe ~I I about, and t~ e that Joe's sk1 • t up in \Vhcrlit >ruary, 1950, a ommunist spet: Jid not know '' sm. Ile had sof ever, and he F that to the Co , America was .can State Dep3 >f rage and P first anti-Comll' to baf£1e him inc els<'.11 I discovered tb tail, and he ha~ 1t in the bewild wed the Wheel1 :hy was badger• -examined at ci >OSC", cart'le~~. ls. Ile talked ab e meant uspr lked about sf >le who should >nage. But c,rn oe McCarthy • , he did not stll~ , and he has re tu med to ,,. ·st anti· oml111111 •50 he found ti 1ui;cd a big ~r' •rmined ene1111r­ ·nate. They had ry 1ninor mi~:-l· 1IcCarthy had "1 them into weaf thy was a liar iat Mc arthy 11 in the State l't want to 11 did not IHI\ e ' said he didn't'' arming propl~ 1 inocent aft1·r 111 .cCarthy wanted EWS, Janu.arJI• J all that he had eyer asked - was that an inve Ligation be made; and he had enough information to prove that an inYestigation ought to be made. McCarthy's enemies were relentless about the names, however; they de­manded them. o, Joe McCarthy got together eighty· one case histories on suspected Com­munists and read them to the Senate. Then the very people who had de­manded that McCarthy name names condemned him for naming them, say­ing that he was cloaking him elf in senatorial immunity and broadcasting unfounded allegations against innocent people.16 It is interesting to note, however, that all eighty-one of them have quietly been removed from government serv­ice. 16 Actually, McCarthy tries to take little credit for making original investiga­tions of Communists or of finding out about people previously un uspected as Communi ls. Other congressional committees - and certainly the FBI - have clone more and better inve Ligating than Mc­Carthy ha clone. SERVICE TO AMERICA \1cCarthy's service to America has been in exposing the Communist con­spiracy - in bringing to the attention of the American people a horribly dan­gerous condition which the FBI al­ready knew about and had reported, but which was ignored, lied about, and roYered up by the nation's lop political leaders. . Joe M Carthy has actually produced little new, original information about ~ommunism in America. But McCarthy ts the only man we have had in the past thirty years whose hide was thick enough and whose manner were rough enough that he could stand up under the relentless abuse directed by the Com­~ unist party and parroted by the great liberal, respectable magazines and news­papers, radio and television commen­tators stand up to it long enough that he hammered into the conscious­nrss of the American people the awful tru~h: namely, that the great inter­nallonal ocialist conspiracy directed from \!oscow had agents in influential a~1d sometime controlling positions in­?• de the lnited tales government and tn other American institutions, and that the linitecl tales was in grave danger o~ being destroyed, not by enemies without, but by hidden enemies within her own borders: enemies who, while working for the destruction of America, were enjoying the protection of Ameri­ca's laws and Constitution.• McCarthy has not dug up many n w cases on Communist treason, but he has put so much heat on old ones that 'omething had to be clone about th m.9 FACTS FORUM NEWS, January, 1955 For the entire new ecunty program which President Eisenhower inaugurat­ed and which has remoYed thousands of security risks from government serv­ice, primary credit is due to the in­fluence of Joe McCarthy although, of course, the admini tration does not give him credit. That is McCarthy's service to America. The l\1cCarran subcommittee investi­gations of the Institute of Pacific Re­lations and the subsequent work of that same committee under the chair­manship of Senator Jenner have pro­duced the most authentic, terrifying, and unimpeachable eYidence of Com­munist treason in the United tale that has e\•cr been produced. McCarthy has had nothing to do with these actual in- -Wide World Photo Senator McCarthy points to a map headed "Communist Organization of the U.S.A., Feb. 9, 1950," during the Army-McCarthy hearing. Ye Ligations, but he is solely re ponsiblc for their being made. It was l\icCar­thy's hammering at Owen Lattimore and Phillip Jessup which caused the enate to set up the Tydings ommit­tee, allegedly to investigate the tale Department. The Tydings Committee whitewashed the tat Department and turned all its attention to smearing Joe McCarthy. Both the whitewash and the smear were so obvious that the McCar­ran subcommittee began its scholarly, careful, and massive imestigation of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Much of the information about Communist trea on in the United States which the American people today know comes from those IPR investigations and from the Jenner investigation which fol­lowed them. If it had not been for Joe McCarthy, we would never have had those investigations." BOOKS AND RISKS REMOVED Take another case: McCarthy inves­tigated the Voice of America. The om-munists and their liberal-left camp fol­lowers enjoyed a perfect orgy of slan­der again t Joe for those inYestigations. But, following McCarthy's investiga­tions, some thirty thousand pro-Com­munist books were remO\ed from our OYer eas libraries and innumerable se­curity risks were removed from the United States Information Agency. Take another one: l\lcCarthy's in­Yestigation of the Army at Fort l\lon­mouth. The administration, the Army, and every anti-1\lcCarthyitc in the Unit­ed States is still screaming that Mc­Carthy disco,ered nothing at Fort Mon­mouth. Nonetheless, as the result of '\IcCarthy's imestigation, a large num­ber of security risks have been fired from Fort \lonmouth; and the Army has ornrhaulecl its security system, which it has obliquely admitted was woefully inadequate. Take, finally, the Peress case. Mc­Carthy did not discover that Peres was a Fifth Amendment Communist. That fact was kno\rn to the Army when l'eress was first commis ioned, when Peress was promoted to major, and "hen Peress was honorably discharged. All that Joe !\IcCarthy tried to do in the Peres case wa to find an answer to the 6·1 question: "Who, after all, did promote Peress ?"18 '\1cCarthy's failure to find an answer to that question has dramatized a ghast­ly truth: namely, that the Communist conspiracy in America is still strong enough to stop any effective anti-Com­munist when he begins to get too close to their center of power.18 * • • * * Bibliography 1 "~IcCnrthy: A Documented Record," The Progressi<e, April, 1951, pp. 9-21. 2 I bid., pp. 6-8. • I bid., pp. 22-29. •McCarthy and //is Enemies, by William F. Buckley, Jr., and L. Brent Bozell, Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, Ill., p. 270. 'Congressional Directory, 1952. • The Progressive, pp. 35-50. 7 I bid., pp. 59-62. s But We Ir ere Born Free, by Elmer Da,·is, pp. 175-177. 9 "The Truth About Joe \lcCarthy," Ameri­can A1ercury, eptembcr, 1953. 10 McCarth)ism· The Fight for America, by nator Joe ~!cCarthy, De-in-Adair Co., ew York, 1952, p. 88. 11 McCarthy and //is Enemies, p. 268. 12 Ibid., p. 289. IS I bid., p. 340. 14 I bid., pp. 50-51. "Ibid., pp. 302-307. 16 U. S. News & World Report, Dec. 5, 1952, " tory of Communi~rn in UN," Interview with Robert Morrif-1, 17 McCarthy and //is Enemies, pp. 67-68. 18 " ase of the Promott>d Dentist," U. News & World Report, Mar. 5, 1954. Page 15 Are governmental stabilizers ancl safety clevices fo rtifying toclay's economy? Or is the Unitecl tates going the way of France ancl Englancl? do11 lop . the '1 hi total het11 rent nati' f('('(' Dan Smoot cliscusses the pros ancl cons of SOCIALISM IN AMERICA 17 I of ti of[ "Ha America successfully resisted >mal the world-wide drift toward ocialism ?" • • • • Let's look at the question from two opposite points of view, taking first the arguments of some who would answer the question "Yes."* • • • • -Wide World Photos Presidents Eisenhower, Rooseve lt and Truman A )IERICA has resisted the world-wide drift toward socialism not by a nar­row, fearful, reactionary, dog-in-the­manger holding onto the status quo; but by meeting the challenge of ocialist revolutionary forces with our own more dynamic and progressive twentieth cen­tury revolution. We gave up the old nineteenth century notions of capitalism when they proved themselves decadent. But we did not drift into the bureaucratic sterility of sociali m. We have developed in America a new kind of e onomic system for which there is no satisfactory name. It ha been called the "mixed economy." But the label i inadequate, b cause it does not describe the ingredients which went into the mixture. In a narrow, technical sense, the American economic ,ptcm which is £lourishing today is a blend of socialism and old-fashioned capitalism. But the blend is infinitely superior to either socialism or decadent dog-eat-dog capitalism.' U. S. ECONOMY CHANGED The American economy has under­gone a tremendous re\ olution in the past twenty years, but it has not been a ociali t revolution. Hidebound con,errnliH'' and t•cono­mic reactionaries who are alway· uncomfortable in times of movement and change - look upon our progress "ith dread and fear. Page 16 But the calamity-howling and viewing­with- alarm could not stop the miraculous transformation of a sick American econ­omy into the wonder of modern times. The present American economic sys­tem i a kind of democratized capital­ism, supplemented and directed by governmental action.' A chief feature of our new system is the constant redistribution of national income from the pockets of the too­pro perous into the pockets of the too­poor. Just as an ably managed business con­cern plows part of its earnings back into the company for improvements and ex­pan ion, so our economic system plows back part of it· earnings into making consumers out of people who formerly couldn't afford to buy much. -Wide World Photo Clerks label and process income tax forms and instruction books at an inte rnal revenue branch office. This is not the result of long-range planning by any one segment of society, or of any one indi,iclunl. It has evolved from a long series of reforms, innova­tions, and inventions, and also from the military emergency of the past twelve years. 1 t ha' C'om<' about through the operation of the graduatt•d inC'ome tax - "hich i' indeed a pott'nt redistributor of wealth. It ha' come about through the passage of minimum wage laws and other legislation to protect labor; through go,crnment ubsidics and guar­antee to people who need help; through the upward pressure on wages exerted by labor unions; through the facl that our need for war materials has given us ten years of full employment; through an enormous gain in the efficiency of American industry and husiness.1 The result has been an extraordinary spreading of the growing national wealth. And this spreading of th wealth has provided, for Americ bu incss, markets of a size undreamed' even in the l 920's. POVERTY STILL EXISTS We have not, of course, abolish1 poverty. There are still American fa~ ilies living in slums, eking out a mis~ able existence on incomes that are f too small. There arc still neglected. o people and widows, deserted farn1h~ migrant workers, sharecroppers, 1 effective workers, physically or mental disabled people, businessmen ai farmers who have suffered a bad run luck. But the percentage of theoe now unbelievably lower than the percents of them before World \Var II. Toda we can actually assert that the Amcrir in economi distress is not an averB· American. The average American in 1954 joyed a prosperity and plenty o dreamed of even in America befo World War II. '\1 Am< farn tors slice chic fC'\O T high the () has com stati ti on <'n'a mak T lo us thar di[[, now Tr And for all those who are reall) lax; need we have relief measures and I~ llw sen ices which simply did not exi't lt•f(i generation ago under the outdated cal f:On talistic system. the To be sure to some extent the cha•' hrl1 has come ah~ut at the expense of thi and 1 who used to enjoy the status of t pea fabulously rirh. But it is not accur up. to say that the rich have heen pul \1 inch ------,...• po11 -Wid• World p Norman Thomas wor 1ea Am ('Or: our lari WO! tlw IS ( I (lh eor the ti or lrw 11{'~ ma the l reading of . tli for Amenc ize undreamed • EXISTS ·ourse, abolish• 1 American fa~ dng oul a rnist mes that are f till neglected 0 le erled farnilir arecroppers, 1 ically or mental 1si ncssmen 3r ercd a bad run of these now m the pcrcen18 I War II. Tod3 thal the Amcric is not an a\era-ican in l 95tl e and plenty 0 America bcfd who are rcall) neasurc and fr r did not e,i~1 the outdated cal extent the cha11 ~ expense of th• the status of l it is not accur have been pul 1 do'"' in order to raise up the poor. The lop 5 per cent of the population, from the 'landpoint of income, used lo gel a highly disproportionate share of the lolal national income. Jn the period hcl\\een the two world \\ars, this 5 per <·cnl gol about 28 per cenl of the lolal national income, e\'en after laxes. Jn l"<'<"<'nl yrars, they have been gelling only l 7 per crnt of it after laxes. But most of the formerly rich arc still very well off indeed. They arc simply gelling a 'mailer slice of a much bigger pie. FATTER SLICE OF BIGGER PIE \!cairn hilc, great numbers of the l\merican people factory workers, farmer>, office \\orkers, engineers, doc· lors an· actually getting a much fatter slice of lhis bigger pie. They are the chief bcncfi<·iaries of toda) 's social reYolution. Tlwrc arc many things worse than high laxes, as anyone who remembers the great depression will agree.' Our massiw social reyolulion, which has spread prosperity to all, did not <·ome about through n·distributing a static amount o[ income. The redistrihu­lion has been dynamic that is, il has cn•ated infinitely more production \\hilc making an infinitelr "idcr di<;lribution. The fabulously rich are still fabu­lou> I) ri<"h. They are not gelling le" than they ll!'<'d lo get. hut llw ralio i' different because million of others are now gelling more. In other words, the graduated income lax; the influence of the labor unions; the progressiye economic and social h·gi,lation of the federal and stale gowrnmenl'i; and the new altitude of tlw gn•at corporations themsehes haYc lwlp(•d lo lc,cl off America's economic and social terrain, not by mashing the Jl<'aks do\\ n, hut by bringing the valleys up. . \\ <' haw opened up for American 111du,lry a n<•w frontier the purchasing .-----""°1· 1'0\\(•r of the formerly poor. -Wide World p Thomas nvs. Januarj/. 1 It is true that fe11cr Americans today 11ork for themsches than formerly. 1early half of all gainfully employed nwrieans are on the payroll of a <·orporation. If we lea\C farmers oul of our rrckoning, the proportion is even lar!!<'r. But this doe~m'l mean what it "ould ha, e meant a generation ago, for ~lw \cry nature of the corporation itself is <'hanging. During the old days the "capitalists" (the people who had the money lo start ("Orporations and to pro\ ide them with l~1e cash they needed for their opera· lions) controlled business. This is still lruc today of mosl small, young busi· nesses; hut il is scarccli true of the mature, large corporations whi("h set the pace for American business. Tlw corporation manager of today FACTS FORUM EWS, Jamuwy, 1955 In the U.S., " both farmers and labor are protected their earnings." has to be adept in dealing with the goycrnmcnt, with labor, with hi con· "'mef', and with the power that lies behind all of these public opinion. J\nd he must be ahle lo work with pro­f<'" ional mrn, for husiness is hecom· ing increasingly profc.sionalized. COMPANIES NOW SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS The grcal corporation of today is a so("ial institution which plays a much more comprehensive parl in its cm· ployr<•s' li1es than it used to. Today's ("Ompany in general thit~ks o[ itscl~ not merdi as a money-makmg enlerpnse­lhough il must of cour e make money· hut as a social institution, too. It would be inaccurate lo say that the corporations of today are more virltious than those of old. Bul we can say that the important ones haYe lo act more , irtuously than before· or al leasl lo act "i1h a fuller 5ense of the Yaluc of a good reputation "ilh their employees, their stockholders, their consumers, their goYernmental investigators, and thP general public. They have found that good business depends al leasl partly upon good deeds. J\losl of their execu­tives- especially the younger ones arc ucul<•ly conscious that busine'8 losl the farnr of the public during the 1930's largely because of the mulishness of lhe business moguls of that time. America's leading business e:\eculi\CS behaYe quite differently today. They arc deeply con· scious of their public responsibility. The old ocialisl idea was that corporations were soulless and govern· menl officials were public servants. '\owadays our corporations are showing lhal they, too, can acl like public serv· ants. They not only can they must. It is obYious to all that this is an era of big go,-rrnmenl of almost irresistibly expanding goyernmenl. Even before Korea, the federal gowrnmenl was spending almost eighty limes as mu("h money. per )l'ar. as in 1900. It was actuallr spending, in a single year. an amount of money bigger than the whole national debt during the 1930's. \lost of the colo";al increase is of course clue lo military spending; but even the nonmilitary spending has been going up by leaps and bounds. Won't e\erything start collapsing "hen defense spending declines sub­stantially? The answer is no. Our e onomy has been equipped with a number of stabil­izers. ome of these stabilizers arc even now al work. Others will come into play as the economy shows signs of weaken- Page 17 ing. They add up lo an impressive array of •afety de,ice nr,er before employed to make a free eronomy enduringly ~trong. Already in operation is defense spend­ing itself. Continuing at an e timated forty billion dollars a year, it is a colos al balancer. Of that um, about half is spent on military hardware manufactured by heavy industry. That annual twenty million dollars' worth of orders inflates the grand total of ex­penditures by government until they account for 25 per cent of all the national expenditures, compared to 8 per cent in 1929. They also account for one out of every nine people employed, compared to one in sixteen in 1929. Thus a quarter of the American econ­omy is practically insulated from the uncertainties and incentives of the market place. econd, there is a huge backlog of long-needed public works up to two hundred billion dollars' worth of high­ways. •choo!,., and public buildings whosr con•trurlion was postponed hy the war. Third, the l .. is committed to en­couraging foreign economic develop­ment and is sure to encourage the export of private U.S. capital, even by part!) guaranteeing it. Since almost every dol­lar exported rrturns as an order for U.S. goods, America's foreign trade will in ­crease in direct proportion lo the for­eign invcstmrnl of American capital. Fourth, both farmers and labor are protected by what amounts to a floor under their earnings. These floors may be criticizrd for making cost· rigid and [or promoting inflation, hut they also make for stability. WAGES MAINTAIN PRICES The demonstrated ability of organized labor to maintain and increase wage rates also keeps up purchasing power. uch stable high wagrs tend to maintain capital imcstmcnt. 1£ wages cannot fall much, business knows that prices will not fall murh and it therdore is less -Wide World Photos !Above) General view of the fillng department at Britain's National Health Service. llelowl Clerks search cross-flle Index al U. S. Veterans Administration office. B~ inrlinrcl lo postpone spending in menl hope of lower priers later. in < All of these stabilizers are effccti1 Ame fortifying today's economy. In re,~r Ame we hmc another set of safety de1·1 ernn for emergency use. pow1 The unlimited taxing power of 1 AL frderal government; unemployment surancr; and the Employment Act Tl 1916, which confers on the fedr med goH·rnment rl'sponsibility for "prof11 was inf?; maximum production" and "rno1 and tenanre of employmrnl opportunitie; men those ahle, willing. and seeking old, work." Tlw wry existence of the sori: manifl'-.tly provides a kind of psy~ na~· logical stabilizer. the 1 The government intervenes in Dral workings of the American econorn)' com many ways. It imposes all mannr'. lo , regulations on business. It pro11 limi; many subsidirs and guarantees. It srr had as a court of last resort in labor ' was pules. It del<'rmines the basic condili lern of crrdit; and, in an emergency, ii I hen post's controls upon prices and W3· neic The dir-hards, of coursr. say thal iran go1ernment is on its way to swallo'' up !'verything, and that we are T headed for socialism. of t 're hmr sw<'pl way beyond •O' that i'm; and in that sweep, we b T d1" rloprd a dynamic economic sy· Roo whi<"h makes us the envy and the fl Ne11 ade of the modern world. a co * * * * lie 1 That was one side of the questioi cut Kow for the 011posite view: ar~~ fede mcnts of some who do "not" thi111 pow that America has successfully rr whe sistcd the. twentieth century dtl helo toward socialism. 0 * \\f'n J "\ 1952. '\orman Thomas, brad of at~ l\nwrican Soc·ialist party. did nol ma1 for thl' prt'sid1•ncy. mor 11 1• admittl'd that tlw Socialist O\f' no lo11g1·r had a platform, bccauer 'to D1•mo<"ralic and Hl'publican partir.' "as aclopt!'d mosl of the major polic1r· sbn th<' old So<"ia li sl party. w1f1 Thr socialism which orman Tho ion offl'f('(I forthrightly in political c I paign y<"ar after yrar was o,cr11h luti ingly n•je<"lc•d by voters, who kno1' 01 socialism is not sonwthing new and c·ou gr!'ssi,·e hut is a rl'artion lo the ot1 " ,.tar European philosophy of the di ri1d1ts of p:OH'rnment. But so<"ialism \\as foistl'd upon A ica hy oth!'rs "ho w<'r<' 'hrewd r11° C01 to ke<·p all the lahels of frcedorn " of destroying the foundations of Jrrr0 193 By adopting the income tax afl'. ur ment in 1913, Americans unwil~1 • removed the one constitutional 1;ii ch · tion which made socialism in the V e tales 1· mposs1" bl e t h al 1· s, t he 11· rn1" l <r "au on the ta,ing powers of the fr ep government.• FA FA TS FORUM EWS, Jamwri/• spending in iter. •rs are efferti1 nomy. In re•~ 0£ safety dr11 ng power of t .1nemployment 1ployment Act on the fcdt ility for "pron ti on" and "rn .. t opportunitie• and seeking stence of the 1 kind of psy intencnes in :rican economY ses all mannr'. ness. It pro'' uarantees. ft srr •sort in labor ~ he basic concliti emergency, it prices and w3, ;ourse, say th3t way to swallo11 that we arr By adopting the ixteenth Amend· ment, which changed only a few words in one sentence of the Constitution, Americans in 1913 comerted their old American form of limited federal gov­ernment into a government o[ unlimited power, Ycry much like those of Europe.• ALTERED UNDER "NEW DEAL" LABEL The change, of course, wa not im­mrcliatc or perceptible. In fact, there was no noticeable alteration in the form and heh a, ior of the American govern­ment until Roosevelt seized upon the old, worn-out quackeries of European socialism and imposed them upon the nation under the label of a "new deal.''> Roose1elt could never ha,e obtained the money lo finance the disastrous New Deal socialistic experiment if the in­c ·ome la\ amendment had not been then• to gi1e the federal government un­limited taxing power. And if Roosevelt had eallcd his New Deal what it actually was an C\periment in socialism, pal­terrwd after the experiment in socialism tlwn going on in the Soviet Union he ne\!·r would ha1e sold it to the Amer­iean people.• This is not to imply that a majority of tlw American people were so stupid my heyond ,;o• that they were taken in by false labels. sweep, we h That', not the way it was clone. (' economic s)- Roosewlt was first elected, not on the cn1y and the P New Deal or Socialist platform, but on world. a conserrnti,·e platform of slates' rights. • • Ile was going to reduce federal exp nses, le of the ciucstio' rut down the power and size of the >site view: ar~u federal gowrnmenl, and permit political o do "not" th 10 pow<•r to return to the individual states successfully r; where, accordin"' to the Constitution it !th century drJ belong-. " ' rhomas, head of parl), did not Onl'c in office, ho\\eYer, Roosevelt "<'nl in the opposite direction. 13y the lime ,·oters got a second crack at Ho?'l'1 cit, the 'ew Deal propaganda machine, financed with taxpayers' money, had already been operating for the Socialist r Oler thr('(' years. E1 cry person who atform, herau•C 'tood up to criticize '\few Deal policies mblil'an partic' "as sneered at and gutted with public e major policir ,Junder by the Pre ident, the President's ·ty. ~vife. eahinet officers, and leading opin­ich "iorman 'fhO •on formers throughout the nation. ' in political c Initially, the ew Deal Socialist revo­' ar was O\'end• lut1on was hampered by the American •lcr> "ho kn°'j Constitution. Roosevelt's popularity 1et~111g new an( c could hludgeon Congress into ruhbcr­Jcl1on to the 3 di >lamping his schemes. ·hy of the nl. UNCONSTITUTIONALITY DECLARED ; foisll'd upon A· AhO\e popular pressures the upremc were shn•wd " 11° Court, ho\\eY~r, declared '1;asic features •ls of fre<•dom of the ew Deal unconstitutional. In 1dations of frrr 1937, Roosevelt openly tried to pack the income tax a 11~ upreme Court but failed.6 nericans unwitl' Tl ·onstitulional Ji~ ie ocialist revolution was not ~ialism in the U diecked for long, however. Vacancies th l · the limit mused by death enabled Roosevelt to a is, l th fr~ replace the "nine old men" as they wers o e FACTS FORUM NEWS, Januar11, 1.955 were churlishly called in those days with J\ew Dealers "ho shared Roose­wlt's contempt for the Constitution of the l nited Stales.• Another obstacle wa• the strength of American private industry. Roosevelt­and later, Truman and the millionaire Socialists around them created suspicion of private industry hy claiming it was all in the hands of a few greedy, rich families.' They knew, of cou"e, that the owner­ship of American business c\'Cn of the giant corporations scattered widely through C\err stratum of society, rested in the hands, not of a few, hut of mil­lions. It could not, therefore, he taken -Wide World Photo London dentist treats patient at public health dental clinic. According to the British dental association, under the 9overnment­run program, the annual net income of a de ntist is $3,200. O\ rr directly; but it could be harassed and la'\ed until it would become help­le ·sly dependent upon government hence, the ew Deal-Fair Deal measures bringing controls, confiscator) la'\alion, and large-scale government competition with private business.' A principal obstacle lo socialism was our federal system. As long as political power was distributed among forty­eight so\ercign and comprting stales, sorialism could not he imposed on the nation. An initial step to11 ard socialism, then, wa' to concentrate so much la'\ing, legis­lating, controlling authority in the cen­tral federal go,ernmrnl that the ;talc go' ernmenls would be reduced lo rela­li ve insignificance. Federal subsidies lo the slates, while making the states dependent upon the federal government, increased federal taxation until the central government acquired a near monopoly of the taxing power. It hecame difficult for the state gowrnmenls lo operate without federal help, because the federal government had pre-empted their resources in taxes.8 By Communist-inspired-and-written labor legislation like the Wagner Act of 1935 the government gave tre­mendous help to the ocialists' hate-the­American- businessman propaganda. It gave the great ocialist-clominated unions autocratic control over millions of American working people and over bu>iness; and it built these unions into po11erful economic propaganda and political action groups constantly exert­ing pre,sure for more centralization of po"er in the federal gowrnmcnt.9 As slate go\'ernmenls surrendered their soYereignty by looking lo Wa hing­lon for handouts, individual citizens ab­sorbed the same attitude. Everyone seemed lo imbibe the ocial­iol idea that political power concen­trated in Washington could solve our problems. Consider aJ,,o the -('W Deal sy lem of gO\ crnmenl by giant federal agencies, operating under broad, yague grants of power by Congreos.10 The aclminii;lralor of the great execu­li\ e agencies wield enormous power in America hut hme no direct respon ibil­il) to the publi and only a nebulous, indirect responsibility lo the Congress, "hi ch ga' e them all of their power-1° Ask your elf who is the head of the Small Business Administration, or of the Tennesse Valley Authority, or of the Commodity Credit Corporation - federal agencie "hich dispose of enor­mous urns of your money and exerci e \aol po"er O\er your economic life; federal agencie \\hi ch use taxpayers' money to produce and sell cleclrieal power in competition with the tax­payers; federal agencies "hich take the money of all ta'\payers and lend it to, or build houses for, a chosen few; agencies which lake the money of all in order lo subsidize some.1° Do you know who runs those agencies? If you do know, and happen not lo like who runs them, is there any­thing you can do about them? The New Deal-Fair Deal system of P:°' ernment by C\eculi\'e agcncie fur­ther promotes a dangerous centraliza­tion of power b) breaking down the old constitutional system of checks and bal­ances and eparation of powers. According to the Constitution, Con­gress was supposed to make the laws. The Pre idenl wa upposed to enforce the laws; the federal courts were sup­posed lo interpret the laws.11 As we de,·elop government by execu­tive agencies, however, we find that administrative rules and regulations have come to ha\e the force of law. Page 19 -Wid• World Photo .Members of the Brit ish Lobour delegation at Saint George•s Hall of the Kremlin during their stopover at Moscow enroute to China. This mean<; that the great e-..eculi\e aμ:ende:-. make their own la,,s, enforce their 0\\11 la"'· interpret their own laws. During World \\'ar JI, for !'>.ample, mo'l of the people puni,hed for OPA 'iolations did not 'iolate a law o[ on· 1rrcss. Thl'y broke some OPA regulation. In many OPA casc-s, the investigation was made by OPA agents; the determin­ation of guilt was made by OP A c-xaminers; and the assessment of fine was made hy OPA personnel. In other words, the whole process o[ imestiga­lion. trial. and punishment was handled h) on!' executiw agc-ncy. The citizen in­' oh·ed never even gol into the due proc­l »S o[ law prescribed h) the Conslitu­tion. 1z '\ow. this may seem a relati,ely un­important thing. taken by itseH and considered in the lig-ht o[ the wartime l'meqi:ency and of all the other factor:; inrnhed. But it takes relatively unim­portant dl'tails to form a whole picturl'. \!any years ago, the best thinker:; amonf! the- ocialists realized that social­ism could newr destroy the American capitaJi,tic system by open, frontal a"ault. They knew it would take the lactic; o[ the mole. working quietly underground to dig a\\ ay the founda­tion' o[ economic and political freedom not in such a \\UV that the «real pillars of constitutional frl'edom ,;ould come crashing do" n in one 'pcrtacular moment. but in such a way that they \\Ould sink <:lowly into the earth.' That's the way it has been planned; that's the way it is working. In recent years, there has been strong opposition to this trend. In 1952. for example, millions who rnted for Ike hop d they were helping lo slop the cancer-like spread of social­ism in our nation. But socialism continues to advance, because we- elect middle·of-the-roaclers to oppose socialism; and middle-of-the­roaders. struggling with such an im­placable- for<'(' as 'ocialism-rommunism. are £ore,·er in rrtreat. The likeable but ineHectual middle· 0£-the-roadc-rs draw a line, make their compromi<:c-s, and •ay. '·We will stand here against sociali•m." But they are handicapped. as our armies in Korea were. They have no purpose to move forward for \irtory. Their purpose is merely to hold. They do hold for a whilr. but the rc-lentJe,s forces 0£ socialism k pounding. l ltimately the middle-of·t1 roadc-rs must give way, drop back another line, make more compromi' and take another stand. That has been the pallern for .i adrnncr o[ socialism in the Unit Stalc-s for srveral years." Our grral prosperity has not resull rrom HflliXC'd ('('QllOffiy" Or "detnOCf izc-d capitalism" which arc merely f labels pinned on a system older, J1l rraclionary, and potentially more tyr nical than thr laws 0£ ancient Babyl Our prosperity has rrsulted from spr ing for war. If we do not haYC the moral cour and statesmanship to stop it, Amer "ill go the way o[ France and Engla~ and hy that road, we will end, as l~ will, in the total darkness and mi" of complete socialism, as it now o? alrs in Hu,sia. Bibliography • \!o;t o! the arguments of those who "Yt·s" are ha1.;.e<l on °The American and Economy," "perial i'-!-iUC of Life, Jan· 1953. 1 "The \fix-l'p in Eronomir Talk" by SI Clia,r, Challenf(e, '1ay, 1951, pp.' 47-51. ''· Are WP Afraid to be Prosperous?" D• erotic Dif(est, July, 1954 (Reprinted f St. Petenburf( Time.•). 3 usodalii.;m," Columbia Encyclopedia. 'lnd Edition. 'The Income Ta< Root of All Etil. Frank Chodorov, published by De,in·.\ Co., New \ ork, I %4, pp. 31-50. :; Undermining the Constiwtion, by 'fh Jamrs orton, published by Oedn·.\' l.o., New ) ork, 1950, p. 52. 6 The Twenty Year Revolution, by Ch \lnnly, puhli,hed by Henry Rrgnrr) 1 Chicago, 195i, pp. 66-73. 7 Ibid., pp. 47-62. 11 Undermining the Constitution p. 108· 9 ''Charnrtrrio;;tiro; of the Wng~rr Art." rials of American Academy of Political Social Scie11cr, Marr h, 1951, p. 200. rn ('ndermining the Constitwion, pp. 10~· 11 Co11<1itution of the United State .. of A fra. l:? HOHi<'f' or Prirr dmini'ilrntion," Colll Enrrrlopt•dia, Srrond Edition. Ji\ l ndermini11~ the Constitution, pp. 38·3 11 /rtrnme Trn Hoot of All Eril, pp. 77-6 -Wid• World One day. as we go about our routine, we will open our c-ycs and look around long enough to <:c-e that f rec-dom is gone. \o man then "ill he a hie to look at the calendar and ay. "It happened on that day." Freedom just subsided. expired with a sigh that was almost imper­l'l'ptihle. Russian peasant and village FACTS FOR J\1 Page 20 T he u. ~ by c Dr. O\i c, A Mt tl'ilh Com Kre.{i.~ lorA Ley, Is c: pro1 [ pro1 ma~ sect you men \\ill bcc1 ' Sch ~an .o \01 th al poi1 thr 'ho a n \i•1 tha CC'~! j)O ' lasl hot Ill wa l I pla slit socialism k the middlc-of-U 1y, drop back ore comprom1' 1d. : pattern for .t , in the Unit ·s.H y has nol result y" or "democr :h arc merely I r Lem older, 1n 1lially more tyr [ ancienl Babyl sulled from spr the moral cour slop it, Amer mcc and Eng\3° , will end, as th ·kness and rni" The Creeks hacl a word for it (U"ar of If ord.1) LoGO MAC HY Is Russia or tlw U.S. IVinning? U. S. EFFORTS HAMPERED by contradictions and inhibition>. opines Dr. Harry Sch1rnrlz. J\e1c } ork Ti1111>.1 So, iet affairs speciali>t. Guest on Farts Forum•s A \ . .,If ER.'> FOR AMER/( I\ . .,. Dr . .'>ch1rnrt; nchanged rieu:s u:ilh program parielists: George llamilwn Cmn.bs. neu,_., commentator artd former l'On· gre.{j_vnari; Projes.t;or Charles /lodges of \ eu ) ork Unitersity, arid Author William /Jw·k­ll'y, Jr., u:itlt /lardy Burt as moderator. the \Cf) facl that the majority o[ the EngJi,,h people including the most prominenl members of the Conservatiw party, in particular \Ir. Anthony Eden are, in effect, "illing to take the Soviel l"nion as being in good faith in these negotiations, indicate> the most slupendou and climactic 'ictory of Communist propaganda. (Corilinued 011 PaRe 22) 1, as it now 01• Is communism winning the propaganda battle abroad?* USIA IS WOOING AND ·aphy its of those who 'he Amerirnn and ;ue of Life, Jan· omir Talk," by SI '1954, pp. 47.5). ' Pro~perou~ ?" Dj 954 (Reprinted ft DR. CllW\llTZ: Thebo' score on the propaganda war is not a simple one lo make up. We are doing better in some S<'clors than we are in others. But i [ )OU force me lo gi \ e an owr·all judg­ment, l \\ ould say the Communists arc i.inning the propaganda \\ar and haw bc1•n for some lime. ~ Encyclopedia. ' , \IR. lkCKLE\: I agree with Dr. <-hlvarlz; they arc "inning Lhc propa­~ anda war. I would nol poinl so much o Indochina or to Guatemala or to \orth or outh Korea, or anything of th~l :;orl lo illu :;tralc this point; I \\Ould po1nl primaril) lo England. I think that tlw very facl that the English ha1c 'ho11 n lhcmsch cs prepared lo negotiate a. modu_s tfrendi, a peace with the So- 11et l n1on. indicates nothing more than that Russian propaganda has been suc­C'c"[ ul. Zoot of All Eiil tished by Devin· 1• pp. 31·50. 'lstilluion, hy Thr shed by f)edn-. ' p. 52. h Zevolution, by
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