In "What Religion Can Do to Defeat Communism,"
J. Anthony Marcus, noted authority on Russia and the
Soviet Communist menace, raises grave questions concerning
the over-all results of "exchange visits" between the peoples
of the United States and the Soviet Republic. Don"t miss bis
article on page 4 of this issue.
It is in the context of the Christian
gospel, and the bearing of that gospel
upon the conduct of men and of
nations that we embark upon these
Metropolitan Nicolai responded in a
similar vein. He said he was quite
pleased with Dr. Blake's statement
and would see to it that each of the
Russian conferees was given a copy.
"We speak as Christians," he said,
basing our opinions on Christian
grounds. If you are here' without political instructions, so also are we. Our
conversations xvill forge closer ties
The State of the Churches
On this question Metropolitan Nicolai speike as follows:
"In 1918 the Church was separated
from the State. This was the- beginning
of a new epoch. Up to that time the
Church xxas connected with the State,
not in harmony, but in disharmony.
'hi' activities of the Church were
tramped thereby. For us separation of
Church anel State means that the
Christian Church docs not mix in the
affairs of the- State, nor the- Stale in the
affairs of the Church. The- Church is
pee of any financial aid from the
State. Our churches anel our tlexei-
tional activities are paid for by the
contributions of the faithful. The
Church is separated from the school.
Religion is not a subject in the school
"How, then, do children receive
feligious instruction? In their homes,
and in the churches where special discissions an- held, particularly on Sun-
flay afternoons. Preaching is .1 regular
Part of the Orthodox service, but on
Sunday evenings there are special discissions on the meaning of the
Chinch. Believing parents can invite
I'n'csts lo their hoincs in order to gixe-
■Nigfcms instruction to children.
"The Church has no care of invalids
°r orphans or thc aged. The State does
195C j 1"a, , s Forum News, December, 1956
this. We do have, however, a special
department to care for aged priests
and for widows of priests.
"We have theological schools. There
are eight .seminaries for priests in
towns and villages, and two academics
comparable to your theological colleges and universities. Candidates for
Study in the- theological schools come
.liter completing the secular schools.
The secular schools have both believers and unbelievers. Those who enter
the- theological schools arc believers.
The- number ol applicants exceeds the
places available. The theological
schools prepare priests. The academies
prepare theologians anel teachers, and
engage in theological research,
"On the matter of relations to the
State, the government has created two
Councils, one- on the affairs of the
Russian Orthodox Church, the- other
to ele-al with all other religious bodies.
Both of these- Councils arc under the
Council of Ministers of the USSR.
There are- no clergy on these- Councils,
Thex provide the means for intercourse between the- Church and the
State. For example, if a church re-
quires materia] for new construction
or repairs, the Council arranges for
tin procurement of the material at
"The- Russian Orthodox Church has
about 20,000 parishes. 35,000 priests.
69 monasteries (including convents
for women). The principle applying
in the nionstciics is 'ora et labora' —
prayer and work. The nuns make embroidery for vestments and other items
for the church.
"The Russian Orthodox Church has
a certain number of churches abroad.
There- is the Exarchate in North America xxith about twenty parishes. In
Western Europe there are churches
under the Patriarchate in France.
England, Holland, Finland, and elsewhere. There are also Russian
churches in China.
"The Patriarchate has five depart-
(Continued on page 36)
The la(e Rev. Dr. Walter W Van Kirk, Mai
Vernon, N. Y., Execu.
live Director, Department of Internal Affairs, National Council
Barnes, New York
sociale General Secretary, National Council
rork, Newton Center,
Mass., President, Ando-
ver Newton Theological
Rev. Dr. Franklin ClorkrX
Fry, New Rochelle.V
N Y„ President of the
United Lutheran Church
Rt. Rev. Henry Knox*\
Conn., presiding Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church (former
President of the National Council of
Rev. Dr. Eugene Canon
National Council of
Bishop D. Ward Nichols, New York, Presiding Bishop, First Episcopal District, African
Paul B. Anderson, New
York, Associate Executive Secretary, International Committee of
A Charles Coolidge Por-
V lin, Englewood, N. J.,