promise and should be encouraged to take scientific courses
and go on to college.
While scholarships and fellowships are growing rapidl)
in number, we hem- pitifully inadequate means of discovering on a nationwide basis the high school studenl of really
high promise, and making il possible' emd attractive to them
tei go through the long grind involved in modern scientific
training. Russian education has many defect-, but I venture
to guess that their system seldom makes that mi-take'. They
are putting on new steam jusl when our output of scientists
-eem- to be slow ing (low n.
Fortunately, some very influential individuals and organizations are working on llii- problem of uncovering real
talent, wherever ii is, ami I believe will come up -non with
a very promising and well-financed program.
But merely sending the promising student to a college or
university by no means insures the development of his
scientific interests. Institutions thai -eem comparable in
oilier respects mav differ widely in the proportion of iheir
graduates who go on for higher degrees in science. Advanced leaching, too, may be excellent at one institution.
uninspired at another.
7. DRAFTING AND WASTEFUL USE OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS
BY THE ARMED SERVICES
Under circumstances of serious shortage, it is importanl
lhat we make good use of the scientist- and technologists
we have. I am sorry to say that the armed services have
seldom used the best judgment in their handling eif scientists
and students of science. Actually, the armed services might
to be more interested than anyone else in conserving and
increasing our supply of technical men. Modern wen fare and
the production of needed supplies are both highly technological. "Selective Service" should be really selective, making
sure that men are assigned lo work that will utilize llieir
abilities most effectively in the national interest. We must
resist lhe pressure tn insure our safety for lhe next five
vi'ars al lhe expense of leaving ourselves weak ten nr twenty
\ears from now. Proper use nf our technical manpower
needs as careful examination as our over-all defense budgel
In fairness, it musl he admitted that the military are not
lhe onlv people who wasie technical manpower. Some shortsighted industrial concerns hire e_'oeeil research workers and
engineers emd then fail to give them adequate facilities and
the nontechnical help needed to permit effective use of
brains and ability. Such policies, however, have become less
tt,Miinon in receni years.
8. INADEQUATE SUPPORT OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
The eighth and final threat to applied research is the fait
thai research of ibis type heis been tending to outstrip fundamental research, especiall) since the "real German research organizations were destroyed in Hitler's attempt to
conquer the world. We should remember thai during the
first forty-five years of Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry,
and medicine, only twenty-four were awarded to the I nited
States, while Europe received one hundred twenty-three.
Germany alone wei- awarded thirty-six. And German scientists were responsible for the discovery of the basic potentialities of alomie fission.
We in America have long heen a nation of inventors, but
only in recent years have started to become a nation nf
scientists. We are gradually learning thai progress in applied research draws continuingly upon a reservoir of basic
knowledge. This reservoir, so largely supplied in the pasl
from Europe, musl now be largely maintained b) what is
dime here in America.
To provide the basic scientific knowledge on which tech-
nolog) rests, fundamental research in the universities musl
be supported by industry, by private philanthropists, emd
in part by the government itself. Support by eill three is
essential, to make certain thai no one influence will dominate, and thai lhe necessary freedom will prevail.
Can business afford lo support work which is abstract,
which does not have immediate practical consequences, emd
which iln.- nol lead to a product thai can he pul iii a
peiekeitja- ami sold al a profit?
Can business eifford it? The real question is: Can business
afford not to support such work? Certainly without it we
will bene losl the seed corn from which applied research
Having sel forth the numerous basic problems involved
in maintaining lhe pace "I scientific developmenl. il is time
to come to grips wilh ihe Snl question. In terms nf ils importance tn the country, lln- question we face is lhe $64
million question. Thai question is. whal can we do about
Ihe need fm- education in science.-- I would like to su|
1. We- cein cooperate in getting better pay and facilitie-s
for our teachers, emd particularly for good science teachers. I understand thai mn- school system had forty linn- ,i-
nieinv qualified applicants fnr ihe job of leaching English
and history as fnr jobs teaching science. Thi- supply-demand
situation cannot he ignored in setting salaries.
2. We can cooperate in setting up gnod educational TV
centers in our larger cities and making the programs both
interesting and informative, ll should he em excellent wav
In interest many youngsters in science ami ii- methods.
t. \\ e can cooperate in informing our young men and
women aboul the opportunities in science and engineering.
"lhe National Association of Manufacturers heis an excellent
booklet on scientific careers, available for distribution in
high schools. We should encourage our high school -indents, before it is loo lelle. to lake the mathematics and
other subjects Ihey should have as prerequisites for later
An appreciation of science—its aims, its accomplishments,
its potential- needs io be developed earlv In the school
vcar-. If we are to have an adequate supply of scientific
personnel, we must recognize the facl thai mathematics is
the language- of the scientific worker. Mathematics preparation musl begin long before college; ye-, ii probably should
-i.nl well back in the grades.
I. We can cooperate in educating the public, both young
and iilil. as to the Function and necessity of research and of
incentives like our patent system and opportunities for
profit, both of which arc essential for encouraging research
and progress toward continually higher standards of living.
5. You, ei~ educators, can help discover, encourage, and
push almig the really superior minds in our schools; and
we, ei- businessmen, can make more scholarships eiml other
educational opportunities available to such individuals, who
are our nation's mosl valuable a—et.
6. And finally, we can all work toward better understanding of our mutual problems instead of giving voice t"
uninformed criticism. I!v recognizing thai both educators
and businessmen are vitally interested in the development
nl our young people into g I eunl capable citizens, we can
ment readily profit frnm one e ther's viewpoints. Through
cooperation we can accomplish more than by separate efforts
toward similar goals.
One thing we can certainly agree upon. Our nation's
stature in the years ahead depends in large pail upon whal
lakes place in your classrooms, and thai i- especially true
in the field of research and technology. The rate of scientific
progress can only be in proportion to the ability of man's
mind to search out and fathom new truths, to evaluate
wisely, to think creatively. Withoul the tools you provide,
the in. ni.il disciplines, the background upon which to build,
and the study and work habits you inculcate, tomorrow -
scientists will be | rly equipped to play their importanl
and exalting role. . . . END
FACTS FOHl'M NKWS. Vovembei /""