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Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 10, November 1955
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Facts Forum. Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 10, November 1955 - File 018. 1955-11. University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library. Web. October 29, 2020. https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/629/show/577.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum. (1955-11). Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 10, November 1955 - File 018. Facts Forum News, 1955-1956. University of Houston Libraries. Retrieved from https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/629/show/577

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

Facts Forum, Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 10, November 1955 - File 018, 1955-11, Facts Forum News, 1955-1956, University of Houston Libraries, accessed October 29, 2020, https://digital.lib.uh.edu/collection/1352973/item/629/show/577.

Disclaimer: This is a general citation for reference purposes. Please consult the most recent edition of your style manual for the proper formatting of the type of source you are citing. If the date given in the citation does not match the date on the digital item, use the more accurate date below the digital item.

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Title Facts Forum News, Vol. 4, No. 10, November 1955
Alternate Title Facts Forum News, Vol. IV, No. 10, November 1955
Series Title Facts Forum News
Creator
  • Facts Forum
Publisher Facts Forum
Date November 1955
Language eng
Subject
  • Anti-communist movements
  • Conservatism
  • Politics and government
  • Hunt, H. L.
Place
  • Dallas, Texas
Genre
  • journals (periodicals)
Type
  • Text
Identifier AP2.F146 v. 4 1955; OCLC: 1352973
Collection
  • University of Houston Libraries
  • Facts Forum News
Rights No Copyright - United States
Item Description
Title File 018
Transcript most industrial progress up lo 1920 resulted frnm the work of individual inventors. The telephone was developed by a teacher of the deaf. Bell; the telegraph, by a professor, Morse; radio, by another professor, Marconi. Edison and Steinmetz were regarded as freak geniuses, of whom we could expect to have only one or two in a generation. However, the great success of the pioneer industrial research laboratories, anil also ihe success nf the Chemical Wen fan- Service in World War I. finally awakened industry lo lhe facl lhat it could hire people- In invent, ami could make money hv doing so. Thai wei- really an important discovery. \nil \merican competitive capitalism has made far better use of this new tool than heis any other system. Since- the end of World \\ en I I or roughly the period I've been in industry I lhe number nf men engaged in applied or industrial research in the United States has increased fiftyfold! Both governmenl and industry an- now spending more each Men than tin- total spenl in all the years prior to World War II! Applied research is |M many ways the mosl remarkable developmenl of mir generation. It has had profound effects upon our life and time-. It has made many companies and industries go ahead, and conversely lack of it has retarded tin- progress of others. HOW APPLIED RESEARCH BENEFITS INDUSTRY In order lo help yon visualize jusl how research grew into importance and to appreciate it- wide and often unexpected ramifications, I should like- to review briefly the results of applied research on a single petroleum process. Tin' pioneer who initiated thai research wee- Dr. William \I. Burton, who died only ei few months ago. \leoiit 1909 Dr. Burton decided that the country's rapidly growing number nf automobiles would soon require more gasoline than could he distilled onl e.f crude nil. Ih- therefore put lhe entire research slaff of the S1 ein11;ir< 1 Oil Company (Indiana) on lhe problem of converting heavy nils into lighter, more' volatile materials. While that research staff wa- probably the- besl and largesl in our industry, il eictnallv consisted «>f onlv two chemists! lb-re- we- see several Factors iheil favor research. First, there was ei need; second, there was intelligent analysis of the problem; and third, Dr. Burton was fin- in put the research slaff mi wmk of Iii- choice. I might add lhal Dr. Burton enjoyed this freedom despite lhe fact thai the top management was skeptical. Fortunately, lhe research was successful, lln- resulting Burton process of cracking doubled iln- amount of gasoline obtainable from a heirrcl of crude nil and eilsn resulted in gasoline of unusually high antiknock quality. Cracking brought aboul many incidental benefits loo numerous lor me in discuss fully here. I will onlv poinl out thai the by-producl geises from cracking are lhe raw material for our vast petrochemical industry and fm- plei-- ti.-. synthetic ml.her. synthetic fibers, ami hundreds nf other new products. Remember, I have been talking aboul onlv a single line of research in a single industry. These advances represent onlv a tiny fraction nf tin- benefits tin- country has derived frnm applied research. Almosl every industry could offer outstanding examples of more recenl date. PROBLEMS FACED BY INDUSTRY In view of the acceleration nf research and of technical progress during the pasl few decades, many people begin unconsciously to assume lhal progress i- certain and more or less automatic. I nfortunately, lhal i- nol lln- cum-, 'flu-re an- today serious threats in ihe- Inline ol applied research, and therefore to ihe continued rapid increase in our stand- .n.l nf living. Even a moderate slowing down nf research wonlil have tragic effects on mir domestic economy. In addition, il might well cosl us our freedom, since our enemy has discovered, eiml pressed into bis own service, this great contributor to our success. In view of the many public benefits, il seems surprising lhat there should be clouds mi lhe horizon nf applied research. Si.mi' nf these threats an- indeed amazing, because ihey ein- so unnecessary. Other problems are inherent: we can hardly expeel ei permanent rapid acceleration. As the Chinese say. "frees iln mil grow into heaven." I think il would be helpful lo educators lo know some of tin- (»i.«!*- lems industry faces. 1. INCREASES IN RESEARCH COSTS Tbe firsl threat is the rapid increase in cnsis. Research today is expensive business. In lhe pasl ten years mir research cnsis al Standard Oil have increased 300 per cent. Practically no olher numerical index connected wilh the company has increased thai much. To dale we believe the high iiesis have been more than justified by results. Bul some time lhe- law of diminishing returns will begin lo operate, and industry after industry is likely In he forced to flatten nil ils rate of research spending. Prospective profits will mil always justify the increased expense and risk. 2. HIGH TAXES A second very serious threat to applied research has been high taxes, especially on industry. If. like a corporation, ymi had in pay 52 per cenl lax on your earnings, how would you feel eihoiii spending monev on anything see ri-^v a- research? Especially if you face lhe prospect that success would require major new investments ami thai the profits, if emv. would again In- taxed eel the- rale nf 52 per cenl. The necessity to conserve cash has had In dominate much corporate thinking. Last year's lax bill gave some' relief, bul some of ihe provisions il'-si'jiH'il l.e encourage business expansion ami research em- slill under political lire. 3. GOVERNMENT RESEARCH As a third threat, wc arc beginning to Bee iln- adverse effects nf government competition in applied research. 1 am by no means opposed in eill governmenl activity of licit sorl. In a number nf fields the governmenl is tin- logical agency tn foster research. The- me.si conspicuous of these is aimiiic energy though even here it would he unhealthy fm- the governmenl to nave a monopoly. Il is practically necessary thai tin- governmenl lake lln' lead in fields like- agriculture ami forestry, where the overall public interesl i~ large, and when- nn private concerns exisl thai could <)<> eill the- needed research. Also deserving of increased governmenl support i- tin- field '.f public health, lln- governmenl i- -i i 11 spending far more nn fundamental Studies nf animal and planl diseases than il i- on human diseases. There an' many fields, however, in which governmenl competition is mil desirable. Thev are the area- in which private industr) i- able emd willing in carry mil adequate research eil it- own expense. I< it mil significant lhal. mil nf a li-t compiled hv th.- Patent Office of tin- eighteen ni.e-t importanl American inventions, not a single one was mmi' ill any nl inn government laboratories? I believe the National Science Foundation is a construe five influence, through ils efforts lo minimize duplication and to concentrate governmenl efforts on basic science. 4. SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES Another threat in research, ami i.> mn- wln.li- system o" free enterprise, i- tin- growth nf socialism in iln- form ol more ami more governmenl control of business. >e.e i.ili-ii1 controls ami projects an- nibbling away mn- heritage o' freedom. Freedom i- the one thing we must have in ihis nation i' our progress is to continue, Freedom to undertake ne* Page Id FACTS FORI M NEWS, November, I"'''
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