n mind, the
n these gen-
of the new
,ee lo work
o make such
ns. The Fund
pointed w ith
its own in
hv. 1953, the
ted $1 1,000,-
„nd. At that
'mid has not
the Fund to
ae as that of
I P. Case, I
, New Jil-eV.
he Fund. Air.
. 1953. He rein to the Sen-
ceded him on
mblic was i—
spend it- pri"'
in the supp,"'
e not interested
Seel- i- it ee.llii,en. Its effort?
diate issues "'
■ i,gages in re-
lhe Fund >!
•s to question?
1 is to advanoj
ieves thai tH
Id not be co"1
gh neglect A
nil the citi/i't
rights are ad
in. This i- th'
as used all th'
n radio, Uuj
an interest \
'ivil liberties and to encourage debate
The Fund for the Republic is a kind
"f fund tor the American Dream. This
"ream undoubtedly has economic aspects; many people came to this country in the hope of gelling rich. But the
essence of the dream i- and alwa) - has
"ecu freedom, the escape' from tyranny
political, religious, economic, social
!ato a free country where- ei man could
Work out bis own destiny in his own
»ay. The Fund for the Republic is
dedicated to reminding .Americans of
'his essential quality of the American
"ream and to reporting on the state
"f freedom today.
There has seldom been a time al
which these mailers bene nol deserved
"ttention. Bul it musl be admitted thai
the Cold War has thrown the whole
subject into unusual disorder. A politi-
'■il peulv in this country has been identified with the "enemy.' Those associated with ihis peulv have therefore come
Under suspicion as an imminent danger
'" the' -telle. In \ ie'w of the' weapiin-
""w available emd nf the examples nl
Subversion thai other countries have of-
'''I'-'l. ihe danger ha- seemed great,
though often mysterious ami intangible.
" has appeared thai lln- peril tn the
Country could he deall wilh onl) I"
""■linn!- lhal drasticall) departed from
those which have characterized Anglo-
lln- range "I suspected persons has
'''" enormously extended hv resorl lo
'-'"ill b) association. The evidence of-
''red to show that a man is a danger
jo American institutions has often been
•"'' "eilly remote. The treatmenl accorded suspected persons in congressional
Investigations ami administrative hear-
'"-is he,- nol always heen that contemplated hv lie- Sixth Amendment. A kind
''' contim - propaganda and social
l'r''—lire has been ke'pi up thai has
ended tn suppress conscientious nonconformity. Political advantage has accrued from .1,liming lhat others were
'"differenl lo lhe lineal of communism.
he result ha- been thai governmental
'facers, university presidents, and ordinary citizens have fell ii necessary t"
'""hit inordinate anxiety on this score.
"ie Fund for lhe Republic lakes im
jjosition mi these matters, beyond af-
""rnhig jis failh in the principle- upon
'ntch our government is founded, as
'''' forth in Ihe Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The
'"id does believe, however, thai the
""'li'ein people, whn musl lake a po-
, 'On nn these matters, should pay at-
. ntton in them emd In- adequately in-
"'"i'-'l al I them. The objecl of the
S, Vovember, I'" y \' iS FORI \| NEWS, Vovember, 195S
Fund is to help supply the requisite
Al its first meeting ihe board authorized a grant for lhe work of lhe special committee of tin- American Hen
Association mi Individual Rights as
Affe-e-teal l,\ Neiiinueil Security. This
committee decided in stud) congressional investigatinns eis ils lir-t subject. The
recommendations of the committee
which are printed in the Appendix*,
wen- adopted by the American Bar Association by an overwhelming vole in
Vugust, 1954. The administration of
congressional investigations has improved since thai date One of the factors in the improvement has undoubtedl)
heen ihe inllucnee of the Bar Association.
Another early action taken by the
board was lhe creation nf a study committee em tlie American Legacy under
Stanle) Pargellis of Ihe Newberry Library in Chicago. In late 1953 ibis committee presented a series "f recommendations, ;i number nf which have since
he.-n adopted. Among these wei- a recommendation for a sluily of lhe groups
on lhe extreme right in Ihis country.
The Fund ha- since commissio I several pilot sin,lies on ihis topic.
THE COMMUNISTS IN AMERICA
Since inu-l ,,f the' pressure on civil
liberties has resulted frnm fear of the
Communists in \merica, the- Fund
financed a studv nf lhe official records
hearing on Communisl activity h\ a
committee under the chairmanship of
Professor Arthur F. Sutherland nl the
Harvard Law School. The committee i-
li-le-d in ihe Appendix". Air. Sutherland's group ha- prepared a digest nl
Ihe principal judicial emd administrative hearings in which lhe Communist
party heis he-en involved, together with
a full bibliography. These volumes have
been distributed t" universit). research,
and public libraries. Microfilm records
of the leading courl cases on Communisl activities have heen placed in a
few large libraries throughout the
In order lo discover whal the attitudes of the American people toward
Communists and radicals were, ihe
Fund in.nil- em appropriation for a national opinion survey h\ ;i committee
under iln- leadership nf Professor Sam-
ei,-I V Stouffer nf Harvard I niversity,
which has resulted in ;i book, Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties.
Air. Stouffer shows lhat lhe American
people, eil ihe' date nf tin- study, were
remarkably intoleranl of minority views.
The mosl encouraging aspeel of his
findings was lhal young people, better
educated people, eiml "community lead-
ers" wen- more tolerant than the cross-
section e.f the- population. Tin- members
nf Mr. Stouffer's committee appear in
Many puhlie- actions have been taken
and many political reputations have
heen buill on assumptions aboul whal
the Communists in lhe 1 nited States
bene been able lo accomplish and what
they are doing al the' presenl lime, lt
has se'e-med useful lo make -nine efforl
in discover whether or not these assumptions are well-founded. The Fund has
made em appropriation to enable Professor (Ilinlon Rossiter of Cornell 1 niversity lo carry out a definite study of
what the Communist party has amounted
to and whal il amounts in now. Air.
Rossiter emd his associates will seek tn
show what lhe successes emd failures
nf ihe' Communists have been in various
importanl segments nf American life. It
i- expected lhat lhe investigation will
lake two nr three' years. The members
nf Air. Rossiter's group ami lhe topics
mi which llicy are working appear in
ANALYSIS OF TESTIMONY
RELATIVE TO COMMUNISM
lln- accepted view of Communisl activity in lhe 1 nited Slate-- rests in a
large pent on evidence given in various
contexts bv a small number of witnesses.
There heis never been a sustained ami
rigorous analysis of the sum total of
ihi- material. Indeed, lhe materia] has
never heen collected in one plan'.
The School of Law of Stanford Uni-
versity has received a grant lo assemble
the- statements nl iln- mosl importanl nf
these witnesses ami In make an objective analysis and critical summary nf
them. The study will he conducted
under lhe direction of Herbert Packer
of tbe New A ork ami Supreme Courl
Bars, who will work in Washington until
January 1 and join the Stanford law
faculty on lhat dale.
THE LOYALTY-SECURITY PROGRAM
(Im- immediate response io the alarm
about lhe activities nf American Communists wa- the loyalty-security program
of lhe federal government, under which
all governmenl employees have In be
cleared. This ha- aroused much controversy, ll i- alleged that ihe right- of
individuals have been sacrificed In the
Pa«e I I